Methods and Capacities for Institutional Policy Making in Environmental Governance: Paradigm of Regulation to Governance

Methods and Capacities for Institutional Policy Making in Environmental Governance: Paradigm of Regulation to Governance

Mononita Kundu Das (Amity University, Kolkata, India)
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0315-7.ch002

Abstract

Environmental governance is the range of rules, practices and institutions related to the management of the environment in its different forms ranging from conservation, protection and exploitation of natural resources. It also indicates all the processes and institutions, both formal and informal, that encompasses the standards, values, behaviour, and organizing mechanisms used by citizens, organizations and social movements as well as the different interest groups as a basis for linking up their interests, defending their differences, and exercising their rights and obligations in terms of accessing and using natural resources. Globally environmental governance is deciphered as the sum of organizations, policy instruments, financing mechanisms, rules, procedures, and norms that regulate the processes of global environmental protection. The need for environmental regulation is the result of identification of factors resulting in environmental degradation.
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Introduction

The need for environmental regulation is the result of identification of factors resulting in environmental degradation. The vision which prevails in most of the countries and international institutions is development-centric. As a result, they advocate for a development of increasingly advanced technology and more efficiently scaled economies that help to protect the environment against the damage. The impossibility of curbing or reversing the trend for harming natural resources, at continental and global levels has led to numerous multilateral agreements which have been signed and ratified over the past 37 years, but implementing them poses a serious problem at the national, regional and international levels whilst environmental degradation continues.

The roots of governance crisis are from various sources, some of them within the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) which advocates for the lack of political will. Hence, environmental regulations produce effects that include lack of funding, imbalance and absence of links with the economy, and the limited application of Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEAs). There is overlapping tiers of governance in the inter-nationalization of environmental governance. The emergence of more comprehensive approaches to environmental planning and the development of multi-partite environmental governance correspond to positive steps in environmental management. This has also contributed to the multifarious and complex nature of environmental governance.

Climate change management predicts that global warming will continue with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The International Panel on global climate change (IPCC) indicates that the foremost determined increase in world average temperatures since the mid-20th century is incredible. Global warming has the potential effect on human health and economy. One of the most important comprehensive solutions in the fight to reduce the effects of climate change in the medium and long term is the adoption of effective policies for decarbonizing economies.

Understanding Environmental Governance

In order to understand environmental governance, we need to have a clear understanding as to its definition. It can be defined as the whole range of rules, practices and institutions related to the management of the environment in its different forms (conservation, protection, exploitation of natural resources, etc.). It can also be defined as all the processes and institutions, both formal and informal, that encompass the standards, values, behavior and organizing mechanisms used by citizens, organizations and social movements still because the totally different interest teams as a basis for linking up their interests, defending their differences and exercising their rights and obligations in terms of accessing and using natural resources. We can also say that it is the formal and informal institutions, rules, mechanisms and processes of collective decision-making that enable stakeholders to influence and coordinate their interdependent needs and interests and their interactions with the environment at the relevant scales. At the international level, global environmental governance is the sum of organizations, policy instruments, financing mechanisms, rules, procedures and norms that regulate the processes of global environmental protection. The principles that emerge for environmental governance are embedding the environment in all levels of decision-making and action, conceptualizes cities and communities, economic and political life as a subset of the environment, emphasize the connection of people to the ecosystems in which they live and promotes the transition from linear systems (like garbage disposal with no recycling) to circular systems (like zero waste strategies).

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Need For Identifying The Factors Resulting In Environmental Degradation

Economic Growth

In most countries and international institutions development centric vision prevails. They advocate for a development of increasingly advanced technologies and more efficiently scaled economies which would help to protect the environment against the damage caused by the very same development. Environmental economists points to a close co-relation between economic growth and environmental degradation, arguing for qualitative development as an alternative to growth. Within the alternative globalization movement, it is maintained that it is feasible to change to a de-growth phase without losing social efficiency or lowering the quality of life.

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