Mindfulness-Based Interventions and Parent-Child Relationship in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Brief Narrative Review

Mindfulness-Based Interventions and Parent-Child Relationship in Parents of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Brief Narrative Review

Kamlam Gopalkrishnan Iyer
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8682-2.ch007
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Mindfulness has been noticed in the domain of psychology and neuroscience for the last two decades. With the plethora of studies based on interventional benefits of mindfulness-based techniques in various populations, the present review assesses if parent-child relationship studies effectively use mindfulness-based interventions on parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The children are in the age group of below 5 years. The aspects of ASD, mindfulness techniques, and parent-child relationship importance are explored, albeit briefly. One study could be reviewed and was assessed for its treatment fidelity. The conclusion was based on the need to conduct more mindfulness-based intervention studies for the parent population of children in the younger ages and with ASD. This review recommends such replication of studies on the parents of the Indian subcontinent as well.
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What are ASDs?

ASD is one of the most prevalent and complex conditions of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (NDD). NDD is a set of complex disorders with varied conditions under their belt. Each condition is characterized by different symptomatology, presentation, and differs in the age of onset. However, it is unified in its origin (generally during the developmental period) and often presented with overlapping symptomatology in conditions. Their etiological basis is genetic in nature. NDDs give rise to disabilities in children due to many impairments noted life-long. Impairments occur in the children's developmental domains, such as social, pre-academic, motor, speech, language, self-help, cognitive, and play skills (Jeste, 2015).

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, 5th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 2013), ASD is featured with deficits in social communication, interaction, limited, odd patterns of behavior seen early in the child's development. On an average across the globe, one in 160 children is diagnosed with ASD (World Health Organization, 2013). It is the most prevalent among the NDDs worldwide and in India (Arora et al., 2018). With increasing survival rates and lowered mortality rates of neonates, the number of children with the risk of NDDs has also increased (Global alliance for vaccines and immunization for India [GAVI], 2019; Zaka et al., 2018). A pooled prevalence rate of 0.09 is reported in the ages of 0 to 15 years in a meta-analytic review on the prevalence of ASD from India (Chauhan et al., 2019).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Mindfulness: A state of being aware of one's thoughts, feelings, and emotions at a given time.

Autism Spectrum Disorder: A neurodevelopmental disorder that presents deficits or excesses in social communication, interaction, and behavioral patterns. Affects during the developmental period of five years and below.

Mindfulness-Based Interventions: Interventions that uses mindfulness techniques in a structured module.

Young Children: Children in the age group of five years and below only.

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