Modern Crypto Systems in Next Generation Networks: Issues and Challenges

Modern Crypto Systems in Next Generation Networks: Issues and Challenges

Rajashekhar C. Biradar, Raja Jitendra Nayaka
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6324-4.ch017
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The performance of Next Generation Networks (NGN) in terms of security, speed, synchronization, latency, and throughput with variable synchronous or asynchronous packet sizes has not been sufficiently addressed in novel crypto systems. Traditional crypto systems such as block and stream ciphers have been studied and implemented for various networks such as wire line and wireless systems. Since NGN comprises of wire line and wireless networks with variable packet-based communication carrying various traffic like multimedia, video, audio, multi conferencing, and a large amount of data transfers at higher speeds. The modern crypto systems suffer with various challenges such as algorithm implementation, variable packet sizes, communication, latency, throughput, key size, key management, and speed. In this chapter, the authors discuss some of the important issues and challenges faced by modern crypto systems in Next Generation Networks (NGN) such as algorithm implementation, speed, throughput and latency in communication, point-to-multipoint, broadcast and key size, remote key management, and communication speed.
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The rising requirement of larger amount of data, video, and cloud computing are driving tremendous demand for faster and more efficient networks is shown in Figure 1 depicts that an NGN includes a packet-based network that can be used for both IP telephony, video, data and support for mobilility. Initially, the term NGN was used to refer to the transformation of the core network to IP (Internet Protocol).

Figure 1.

Number of internet users (Courtesy: Sogeti Labs)


NGNs must live up to the expectations of user and network service provider in terms of speed, trust and privacy. New crypto architectures require more sophisticated protection mechanisms to address various issues in modern applications. The NGN is characterized by the following parameters. (1) Variable packet-based transfer, (2) Support for a wide range of services, applications and mechanisms based on service building blocks such as real time, streaming, non-real time services, multi-media and video conferencing, (3) Broadband capabilities with end-to-end QoS (Quality of Service). (4) Interworking with legacy networks via open interfaces. (5) Generalized mobility issues. (6) Unrestricted access by users to different service providers. (6) Various identification schemes such as IP address for routing in IP networks and (7) converged services between fixed or mobile stations.

Next Generation Networks (NGNs) use high speed wireless devices with variable packet sizes that incorporate 2G/3G/LTE, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, GPS, wireless sensor networks and other radios. It includes cellular communications, wire line or wireless broadband and other emerging applications as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2.

Next Generation Network architecture


NGN network supports for a wide range of services, applications and network architectures based on service building and application. NGNs will carry not just traditional conversational services such as voice calls and data transfer but also transactional services like banking and online purchasing, streaming services like watching video-on-demand or IPTV (IP Television) and real-time interactive services such as video conferencing. NGNs must support the QoS demands of the application and it must provide adequate end-to-end bandwidth to consumers, typically several Gigabit NGN Interwork with legacy networks via standard interfaces. Existing telecommunication networks will be required for several years to support legacy services and Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) for consumers to facilitate a measured transition to NGN at interconnect points (Alptekin, 2013). NGNs typically adopt a backward compatibility model using traditional SS7 signaling and TDM at interconnect points. Mobility access to core network services becomes more generalized. It is necessary to manage mobility between service providers and access points into the service provider network. Unrestricted access by users to different service providers and legacy users, NGNs will increasingly allow services to be accessed from different access networks, including fixed line, traditional mobile and fixed wireless such as WiMax as shown in Figure 2.

Key Terms in this Chapter

User Datagram Protocol (UDP): User Datagram Protocol is a simple OSI transport layer protocol for client or server network applications based on Internet Protocol. UDP is the main alternative to TCP. UDP is often used in videoconferencing applications or computer games specially tuned for real-time performance.

Next Generation Networks (NGN): Next Generation Networks is deployment of independent services over converged fixed and wireless mobile networks.

Cryptography: The discipline which embodies principles, means and methods for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification, prevent its unauthorized use or a combination thereof the study of transforming information in order to make it secure from unintended recipients.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA): Code Division Multiple Access employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme in which each transmitter is assigned a code to allow multiple users to be multiplexed over the same physical channel.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) organisation. It has been working with industry and the cryptographic community. The overall goal is to develop a Federal Information Processing Standard that specifies an encryption algorithm capable of protecting sensitive government information well into the next century.

Synchronous Transfer Mode (STM): Synchronous Transfer mode is multiplexing technology used by telecommunication backbone networks to transfer packetized voice and data across long distances.

Global Positioning System (GPS): Global Positioning System is a space-based service that provides position, navigation, and timing information to users anywhere on Earth.

Internet Protocol (IP): Internet Protocol is the method or protocol by which data is sent from one computer to another on the Internet.

Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC): Application Specific Integrated Circuits is a custom designed integrated chip.

Wi-Fi and Wi-Max: Wireless technology which is used to provide internet access and multimedia services over the Air.

Customer Premises Equipment (CPE): Customer premises equipment used to extend broadband services over long distance on wire line and wireless media.

Field: Programmable Gate Array (FPGA): Field Programmable Gate Array are programmable digital logic chips.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP): The Transmission Control Protocol is a connection-oriented reliable protocol. It provides a reliable transport service between pairs of processes executing on End Systems using the network layer service provided by the IP protocol.

Global System for Mobiles (GSM): Global System for mobiles communication is digital cellular technology used for transmitting mobile voice and data services.

Long Term Evolution (LTE): Long Term Evolution is a wireless broadband technology designed to support mobile broadband Internet access via cell phones and handheld devices.

System-on-a-Chip (SoC): System-on-a-chip technology is the packaging of all the necessary electronic circuits and parts for a system.

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