Modern Educational Strategies for the Training of Philologists in Higher Education

Modern Educational Strategies for the Training of Philologists in Higher Education

Pavel Alekseevich Katyshev (Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Russia), Irina Anatoljevna Leshutina (Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Russia) and Svetlana Igorevna Elnikova (Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2314-8.ch011
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Abstract

The chapter reflects the strategic approaches to the system of higher philological education. Changing the learning objectives and criteria of its effectiveness requires the introduction of new educational strategies in the practice of training philologists, the development of teacher interactive strategies that meet the requirements of student-centered learning work in different age groups and involve an active dialogue between the teacher and the student. All this reflects the goals of modern educational policy aimed at the modernization of education, provides a high level of quality of education and meets modern trends of globalization, information, and humanization of education.
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Introduction

A characteristic feature of the current stage of development of higher education is the requirement for the formation of five basic competencies: information, sociocultural, socio-political, readiness for education and self-development, communicative. Moreover, the humanization of education is defined as one of the most important strategic world educational systems, and in this context, the formation and development of a culturally and spiritually rich, communicatively mature person is the most significant. In the field of humanitarian knowledge, that is, knowledge about a person, philology as a science, and with it philological education, occupy a special place.

Traditionally, philology is defined as a combination of humanitarian disciplines (linguistic, literary, historical, etc.) that study history and find out the essence of the spiritual culture of mankind through a linguistic and stylistic analysis of written texts. At the same time, an orientation toward information and communication trends in the development of society as a whole indicates the need to expand the object of study of this scientific field and include, in addition to the process of the formation of human culture, expressed in texts, also relevant communication processes.

Thus, in the modern context of the training of philologists in higher education, a comprehensive object of the study of philology is laid. On the one hand, as before, philology is studied from the standpoint of spiritual culture through the analysis of written texts. This philological direction is engaged in the study of “static” objects: cultural and linguistic facts, universals, phenomena that are recorded in the texts and are not subject to change. On the other hand, it is quite obvious that the culture of a modern globalized society is developing on the basis of the processes of social interaction, social communication. So, dynamic processes of linguistic / communicative interaction in the framework of various situations of social reality and those aspects of human culture that manifest themselves in these processes require study. The study of this “layer of culture” corresponds to the general tasks of modern philology and determines the inclusion of communication in the object of its study, makes it possible to overcome the text level and brings to the level of discourse.

Philological education refers to the systematic process of forming competencies within the scientific field of “philology”, contributing to the implementation of various types of philological (educational, scientific and practical) activities, as well as the development of personality qualities, characteristics, and competencies that contribute to socialization in a modern global, information and communication society means of subjects of the philological cycle. In this work, philological education refers to the education that students receive at linguistic universities within the framework of the specialties “Philology” and “Linguistics”.

All the changes taking place in modern education make us pay particular attention to the fact that philological knowledge underlies the formation of a foreign language communicative competence / or that the focus of foreign language teaching in the system of philological education is on the formation of a competent communicative personality.

The objectives of the study are how:

  • a)

    the goals, content and principles, strategies for teaching a foreign language, determined in accordance with a social order, affect the methodological foundations of philological education as such;

  • b)

    the main trends and processes occurring in philological education as a whole (or acting on it from the outside) are directly reflected in the teaching of this subject.

Thus, the competency-based approach as a modern educational paradigm has defined in higher philological education a new understanding of the goals and strategies of learning, as well as the criteria for its effectiveness.

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Background

The transition to a competency base is today the main trend affecting the conceptual basis of the system of philological education in higher education. In the system of training philologists, students form the following types of competencies:

  • a)

    communicative competence;

  • b)

    key competencies (general / general cultural / general educational / meta-subject);

  • c)

    professional competencies. The management of training and educational activities requires a certain set of tools - strategies that contribute to the formation of the above competencies among students.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Communicative Competence: A person’s ability to communicate in one or all types of speech activity, which is a special quality of a real linguistic personality acquired in the process of natural communication or specially organized training.

Learning Strategies: Actions and operations used by students in order to optimize the processes of obtaining and storing information, extracting it from memory and its use.

Educational Strategies: Actions performed by students on their own or under the guidance of a teacher and aimed at the transfer or acquisition of knowledge, as well as the formation of relevant skills.

Reflective Strategies: Methods for assessing learning outcomes aimed at diagnosing and self-diagnosing students, their knowledge and skills, and allowing the student to reflect on their own successes and achievements.

Metacognitive Strategies: Include the following: (1) planning; (2) setting goals; (3) monitoring; (4) the ability to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies that were involved at various stages of mastering the learning material.

Communicative Strategies: Actions planned by the speaker in advance, implemented during the communicative act and aimed at achieving the communicative goal.

Socio-Emotional (Affective) Strategies: Actions that allow you to recognize and manage emotions, successfully cope with communicative conflicts, understand and show empathy for the interlocutor, establish and maintain positive relationships, establish and achieve communicative goals.

Cognitive Strategies: Methods for responding to specific learning problems. Among the most common cognitive strategies, the following stand out: (1) pre-text activity; (2) auditory and visual perception of familiar material; (3) recording basic information during the reading of educational material; (4) synthesis of all previous resources in order to better understand what has been viewed, listened to or read.

Interactive Strategies: Methods of interpersonal, intra- and intergroup interaction, which ensure high motivation of students, the strength of knowledge, creativity and imagination, sociability, active life position, team spirit, individuality value, freedom of expression, emphasis on activity, mutual respect and democracy in the learning process.

Assessment Strategies: Methods used to collect information on student learning outcomes.

Motivational Strategies: Processes, methods, means of encouraging students to productive cognitive activity, to actively master the educational material and depending both on the actions of the teacher and the student himself.

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