Modern Navigation Systems and Related Spatial Query

Modern Navigation Systems and Related Spatial Query

Wei-Shinn Ku (Auburn University, USA), Haojun Wang (University of Southern California, USA) and Roger Zimmermann (National University of Singapore, Singapore)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2038-4.ch038
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With the availability and accuracy of satellite-based positioning systems and the growing computational power of mobile devices, recent research and commercial products of navigation systems are focusing on incorporating real-time information for supporting various applications. In addition, for routing purposes, navigation systems implement many algorithms related to path finding (e.g., shortest path search algorithms). This chapter presents the foundation and state-of-the-art development of navigation systems and reviews several spatial query related algorithms.
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Modern Navigation Systems

A navigation system is an integration of position and orientation devices, computation devices, communication hardware and software for guiding the movement of objects (e.g., people, vehicles, etc.) from one location to another. In general, the infrastructure of navigation systems can be classified into two subsystems: positioning signal transmission systems and positioning signal receivers. The positioning signal transmission system allows the signal receiver to determine its location (longitude, latitude, and altitude) using timing signals. Positioning signal receivers range from hand-held devices, cellular phones, to car-based devices. These devices typically include some storage of map data and the computing capabilities of spatial operations, such as calculating directions. Additionally, in some novel geoinformatics applications, the receiver also relies on some server components for various services, such as real-time traffic information. In such a scenario, a server infrastructure is introduced which includes a Web server, a spatial database server, and an application server to provide these services. The signal receiver communicates with the server via wired or wireless networking infrastructures.

Positioning Signal Transmission Systems

Positioning signal transmitters, such as satellites and base stations, broadcast precise timing signals by radio to receivers, allowing them to determine exact geographic locations and then dynamically display and update their current position on digital maps. As of 2006, the Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional satellite-based positioning signal transmission system.

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