Modifications of Biodegradable Thermoplastic Starch (TPS) From Sago Starch via Cross-Linking Method

Modifications of Biodegradable Thermoplastic Starch (TPS) From Sago Starch via Cross-Linking Method

Yusriah Lazim (Malaysian Institute of Chemical Bio-Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Abdul Baith Abu Hanafi (Malaysian Institute of Chemical Bio-Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Mohd Syazwan Adura (Malaysian Institute of Chemical Bio-Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Siti Afifah Muda (Malaysian Institute of Chemical Bio-Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia), Lily Suhaila Yacob (Malaysian Institute of Chemical Bio-Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia) and Ahmad Marzio Mohd Yusof (Malaysian Institute of Chemical Bio-Engineering Technology, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1374-3.ch004

Abstract

The increasing amount of synthetic plastic waste has contributed to environmental problems worldwide. As an alternative to synthetic plastics, thermoplastic starch (TPS) has been used for many applications, especially packaging application, since TPS provides good biodegradation and ease of disposal and reducing the consumption of petroleum. However, TPS tends to experience loss in mechanical properties and stability due to retrogradation of the starch. Modification of starch is often carried out to overcome this shortcoming in TPS. TPS can be made of various type of starch from various plant sources such as corn, cassava, rice, and potato. Sago starch is a plant-based starch that originates from the sago palm tree. The chapter aims to give a short literature overview on the sago starch, issues related to starch and thermoplastic starch, modification of sago starch via crosslinking method, properties of crosslinked sago starch, and limitation and opportunities of modification of sago starch via crosslinking method.
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Introduction

Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is one of promising material to replace common synthetic polymer in packaging such as low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) sheets and film. Demand for starch is high in packaging applications due to the good tensile and gas barrier properties, and can be obtained from various renewable plant-based sources such as rice, potato, corn and sago. Starch in its native form is brittle and the hydrophilic nature of starch will results in poor moisture barrier properties and high water sensitivity of the starch-based film, as compared to synthetic polymer. Plasticizer such as glycerol and sorbitol are added into native starch to form TPS with improved flexibility and good barrier properties. However, TPS film will experience gradual loss in flexibility and its strength due to retrogradation which will affect quality of TPS, especially on its mechanical strength after storage period. Various chemical modification techniques have been developed to overcome these disadvantages. Chemical modification such as acid modification, cross-linking, esterification and etherification are among the options. This chapter will report on the current knowledge of TPS made from sago starch, pertaining to its properties with chemical modification via crosslinking.

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