Monetary Value Change of Some Provisioning Ecosystem Services of Middle Draa Valley, South of Morocco

Monetary Value Change of Some Provisioning Ecosystem Services of Middle Draa Valley, South of Morocco

Siham Zerouali (Southern Center for Culture and Sciences, Morocco), Mohammed Yacoubi-Khebiza (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco) and Fadoua El Qorchi (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7387-6.ch004

Abstract

The desert oasis is a wetland agro-ecosystem more and more under pressure. This trend threatens the oasis ecosystem services (ES) and then the wellbeing of the local population. In order to quantify this trend in Middle Draa Valley, South of Morocco, the monetary values for a selection of ES have been estimated. In this chapter, the economic values of 28 provisioning ES in 2014 was examined and next compared with the economic values of 2009. These values were standardized to US$ per hectare per year. The total value of the studied provisioning ES in 2014 was found to be 8658.3 US$/ha/year for the arable area (26000ha) and 150 US$/ha/year for the whole Middle Draa Valley (1500000ha). Comparing these findings with the data of 2009, a slight increase of $1245.7 (in 26000ha) and $21.5 US$/ha/year (the whole area) was detected in the period 2009-2014.
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Material And Methods

Study Area

The study area, located in the south east of Morocco, with an area of about 15 000 km2 (Figure 1). Hydrologically is the middle part of the Draa Basin. It is subject to an arid climate, the summer temperatures are between 43 and 50 ° C and The mean annual rainfall is about 80 mm.

Figure 1.

Localization of the study Area; MDV, Middle Draa Valley

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Along the MDV, the greenery oasis agro-ecosystem extends over 26 000 ha in a pre-Saharan environment (Karmaoui et al., 2014a). Its cultivation largely depends on the inflow of water from the outside. Mountains, plains, and desert plateaus are exploited mainly for pastoral purposes. The climate is arid climate and belongs to the Saharan bioclimatic stage. The average annual rainfall is very low and decreases from upstream 108 mm (Agdez) to downstream, 74 mm in Zagora (MPZ, 2014). In addition to agriculture, the tourism is the second economic sector in this area. However, in the period between 2009 and 2014, a continuous decrease in the number of tourists was observed (Figure 2) for unknown reasons.

Figure 2.

Number of overnight stays in Middle Draa Valley

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Source: (Authors using data from MPZ, (2014)

In this area, the ES with available data and highest importance were identified, gathered, and classified in order to evaluate.

Key Terms in this Chapter

OASIS: Agro-ecosystem in a desert zone.

Provisioning Services: Include services like food, water, and fiber.

Economic Valuation: Estimation of the economic value of ecosystem services methods such as market prices, replacement cost, restoration cost, travel cost, contingent valuation.

Regulating Services: Are the services that assure the water, climate, soil regulation.

Cultural Services: Non-material services provided by an ecosystem.

MEA: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment started by the United Nations in 2005.

Supporting Services: Ecosystem services that support other ecosystem services such as the primary production, photosynthesis.

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