Monitoring the Condition of Mineral Nutrition of Crops Using UAV for Rational Use of Fertilizers

Monitoring the Condition of Mineral Nutrition of Crops Using UAV for Rational Use of Fertilizers

Dmytro Sergiyovich Komarchuk (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine), Vitalii Pylypovych Lysenko (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine), Oleksii Oleksandrovych Opryshko (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine) and Nataliia Anatoliivna Pasichnyk (National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7573-3.ch011

Abstract

The reviewed problem deals with the metrological support of sensory equipment using cameras with standard and infrared lenses. The elaborated method to use UAVs for remote shooting of agricultural crops and obtaining images is to be used to determine the level of nitrogen provision for grain crops has been developed. For radiofrequency correction of lighting changes while mineral nutrition state monitoring, it is recommended to use a method with the application of official data to be calculated on the basis of camera's regular camera exposure meter measurements. It is advisable to use an infrared lens for monitoring the state of individual crops using digital non-specialized cameras instead of optical one. Exampling GoPro Hero 4 digital camera, it has been found that there are three channels to use IR lens which have the characteristics of fixing radiation either in the infrared range or in the red area of the optical range.
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Importance Of Nitrogen Nutrition For Plants

In the context of the increasing level of chemicalization of agriculture and the cost of fertilizers, one of the pressing problems is to increase the efficiency of their application. Successful resolution of this issue involves the need in a comprehensive techno-agrochemical approach to optimize the plant's mineral nutrition, colon and balance of nutrients in the plant-soil-fertilizer system.

Fertilizer technologies should not ensure only the requirements of agriculture but the environment too (Horodnii, 2006).

Nitrogen is the most widely used macro element, one of the most important building elements to increase the green (vegetative) mass of plants and, consequently, yield. They do not mean the nitrogen to be the «element of life» in vain.

In plant organism it participates in the synthesis of proteins. As an important component it is found in nucleoproteins and nucleic acids of the RNA and DNA, it is part of the molecule of chlorophyll, vitamins, alkaloids. The deficit of nitrogen in a plant nutrition suppresses the pace of intragranular opagans, which, in its turn, influences on the formation of phytosanitary leaflet growth and causes the reducing of yield and its qualitative features (Horodnii, 2006; Horodnii and Melnychuk, 2006; Coruzzi and Bush, 2001).

Features of winter wheat nitrogen nutrition. For winter wheat nitrogen is a priority element to be responsible for the growth of vegetative mass, the formation of productive stems, and the pouring of grain. While sowing, it is necessary to provide the plants with nitrogen for sufficient autumn bait but the amount of this element should not cause plant overgrowth. Autumn is a season to be important to create a sufficient phosphoric-potassium background of the soil and to give «start» nitrogen to the plants.

All further methods of establishing fertilizers are nutritious and are carried out during the spring-summer period. First of all, in spring plants need to leave the winter rest and quickly restore the vegetation. At this time, it is important to give nitrogen for stimulation. During this period plants need readily available nitrogen compounds but the dose of these elements should be moderate because the root system is still weakly developed and a sharp increase of soil solution concentration may cause toxic poisoning of plants and inhibition of their growth processes (Horodnii, 2006; Horodnii and Melnychuk, 2006; Hospodarenko, 2016).

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