Moon and Mars Space Exploration Concepts

Moon and Mars Space Exploration Concepts

Stella Tkatchova (Interstellar, Belgium) and Kazuhide Todome (Japan Manned Space Systems, Japan)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-105-8.ch002

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“Many say exploration is part of our destiny, but it's actually our duty to future generations and their quest to ensure the survival of the human species.”

Buzz Aldrin


2. Apollo Mission Benefits

The Apollo program started in 1963 and finished in 1972. During this period six successful Moon landings (i.e. Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17) were performed. These missions brought back lunar samples and resulted in scientific and technology benefits. For example, as a result of the Apollo missions more than 1,500 spin-offs were developed from the space technology developed (Greene, 2008). Many of these spin-offs became important to our day-to-day lives, such as scratch resistant lenses, lunar boots, kidney dialysis machines, water purification technology, dry lubricant and fire resistant materials as presented in Table 1.

Table 1.
Spin-offs products from the Apollo missions (Stenger, 2003; NASA, 2008; Greene, 2008)
Day-to- day applicationsHealthcareIndustrial Processes
Scratch-resistant lenses for sun-glassesKidney Dialysis MachinesCordless tools- drills, dust vacuums
Lunar bootsHospital monitoring equipmentWater purification technology
Freeze-dried foodCool suitsInsulation barriers
Athletic Shoe DesignProcess for bonding dry lubricant to space metals
Thin, light, flexible, yet durable and non-combustible fabricDigital signal-processing techniques part of CAR and MRI
Vacuum metallizing techniques
Flame-Resistant Textiles

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