Multi-Standard Multi-Band Reconfigurable LNA

Multi-Standard Multi-Band Reconfigurable LNA

Mohd Tafir Mustaffa (Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60566-886-4.ch001
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In this research, the aim is to design and implement a new low noise amplifier (LNA) for a multi-standard mobile receiver based on reconfigurability concept. The LNA design is based on the inductively-degenerated common-source (IDCS) topology as it has been proven to be a good choice in designing multi-standard multi-band LNA. The design is using 0.18 µm CMOS technology. The reconfigurable LNA has been designed to operate in two bands of standards consisting the bands range from 800 to 1000-MHz (lower band) and 1800 to 2200-MHz (upper band). The simulation results exhibit gain S21 of 12.9-dB for lower band and 12.4-dB for upper band, input reflection S11 of -14.5-dB and -17.2-dB for both bands, and output return loss S22 of -14.7-dB and -26-dB for lower and upper band making the LNA suitable for most of the mobile communication applications. The LNA also exhibits the noise of figure of 2.55-dB and 2.3-dB for lower and upper band respectively. The circuit consumes 26.5 mW when operating in lower band mode and uses 18.8 mW of power when operating in upper band mode.
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High demands for multi-standard multi-band devices (to cover standards available in almost anywhere in the world) with more functionality (i.e. video call, games, email etc.) for wireless mobile devices invites the radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) community to focus on the design of compact systems. Consequently, nowadays, mobile devices come with several standards to support multiple functions.

Third-generation or popularly known as 3G systems generally support multiple mobile communication standards such as Global Standard for Mobile (GSM900), Digital Cellular System (DCS1800), Personal Communication System (PCS1900) and Universal Telecommunication System (UMTS) or Wide Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) (Universal Cellular Engineering (UCE), n.d.; 3rd Generation Partnership Project, 2008a; European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), 1999; 3rd Generation Partnership Project, 1999; 3rd Generation Partnership Project, 2008b). With respect to these standards, current multi-standard multi-band mobile devices support parallel architecture of the RF receiver system on a single-chip. Specifically, industries use parallel components such as RF filters and LNAs at the front-end receiver of mobile devices to support those standards (Qualcomm CDMA Technologies, n.d.; Texas Instruments RF Technologies, n.d.). Unfortunately, this implementation is very area inefficient, costly and consumes relatively high power. Thus, a better solution is needed to produce a compact mobile device to meet the need for a multi-standard multi-band system with more functions that could result in the reduction of the cost and complexity of the system as well as power consumption.

Referring to work presented in Brandolini, Rossi, Manstretta, & Svelto (2005), it proposed a single multi-standard LNA in combination with several RF filters at the front-end circuit to meet the need for multiple standards devices. In another proposal (Veljanovski, Stojcevski, Singh, Faulkner, & Zayegh, 2003; Boeck, Pienkowski, Circa, Otte, Heyne, Rykaczewski, Wittmann, & Kakerow, 2003), reconfigurable architecture is used, using the concept of hardware sharing with also multiple RF filters at the very front-end of the RF receiver. The proposed architectures reduce the complexity, power consumption and components used in current solutions.

In conclusion, multi-standard radio architecture involves a lot of design issues such as the following (Brandolini, Rossi, Manstretta, & Svelto, 2005; Mustaffa, Zayegh, Veljanovski, & Stojcevski, 2006):

  • A multi-standard receiver must have minimum component count and area and to continue miniaturization.

  • All the considered standards do not need to be covered at the same time, i.e., when specific band or standard is active, the others can be switched off or in idle mode, in order to save power and reuse hardware resources.

To highlight more details on the concepts of mobile communication system and issues regarding it as mentioned above as well as the design and implementation of the multi-standard reconfigurable LNA, this chapter is divided into several sections which are Multi-standard RF Systems, Reconfigurable Multi-standard Mobile Terminals, Design and Implementation of Reconfigurable Multi-Standard Multi-Band LNA and Conclusion.


Multi-Standard Rf Systems

Multi-standard RF systems consist of several standards such as GSM and 3G standards. In this section, some details on the RF standards in terms of frequency allocation, modulation techniques used, etc are provided. Then, followed by the presentation of RF receiver architectures used to support those standards. Finally, this section will end up with the discussion of the recent and past developments of the multi-standard RF mobile systems.

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