Mushroom-Derived Bioactive-Based Nanoemulsion: Current Status and Challenges for Cancer Therapy

Mushroom-Derived Bioactive-Based Nanoemulsion: Current Status and Challenges for Cancer Therapy

Nagendra Kumar Chandrawanshi, Deepali Koreti, Anjali Kosre, Pramod Kumar Mahish
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-8378-4.ch016
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Cancer is a class of disorders that is characterized by the abnormal growth of cells in an uncontrolled manner. In cancer progression, tumor cells have become highly heterogeneous, and they create a mixed population of cells with different molecular characteristics. The mushroom bioactive compounds have a rich biological activity including immunomodulatory, anticarcinogenic, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory, etc. Besides, conventional anticancer drugs and applied therapy have tremendous challenges and limitations such as poor solubility, narrow therapeutic window, cytotoxicity to normal tissues, etc., which may be the causes of treatment failure in cancer. A previous study reported mushroom bioactive compounds against cancer treatment. The chapter focuses on mushroom-derived bioactive compounds and possible implications in nanotechnology and, further, will be utilized for new advanced nanoemulsion techniques for the promising treatment of cancer.
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Brief Description Of Cancer

Cancer is a cluster of diseases that involve uncontrolled biological processes, replicative immortality and resistance to cell death. Cancer cells grow into an associate degree in abnormal cell mass, which is known as a tumor. Cancer processes are primarily originated by damage or mutation of proto-oncogene that code for proteins concerned within the induction of cell proliferation and differentiation. Alterations in each oncogene and tumor suppressor genes are necessary for tumor development and are favoured by mutations in the tumor status genes that code for a family of proteins involved within the control of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. The mutations that initiate a tumor are clonally designated to favor aberrant and uncontrolled biological processes, the absence of inhibition of the excessive cell growth, avoidance of immune system, blockage of cell death, transmission and accumulation of genetic material errors (Perez-Herrero and Fernandez-Medarde, 2015). Globally, the morbidity and mortality rate due to cancer is increasing continuously. For the treatment of cancer generally prefer the chemotherapeutic and followed by radiotherapy approaches. However, chemotherapy has rigorous side effects. Therefore, biological scientists are continuously working with other interdisciplinary experts for developing a new effective management system for cancer treatment (Joseph et al., 2018).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Liposome: The liposome is a spherical-shaped vesicle that is composed of one or more phospholipids bilayers. It has resembled the cell membrane structure. The liposome is a novel drug carrier; they are encapsulated with hydrophobic or hydrophilic targeted drugs (bioactive compounds), the containing vesicle will be capable of well-suited for drugs delivery mechanism.

Cancer Treatment Therapy: Cancer is a cluster of diseases in which abnormal cells grow and divide uncontrolled manner. Abnormal cells are also affected by normal body tissues. It has a lead factor that causes the higher mortality rate and continuously increasing constantly at the global level. The presently various methods used for cancer treatment such as a chemotherapeutic, chemical, and radiation, including surgery, etc. There are a lot of technical ambiguities in the management of cancer. Thus nanotechnological cutting edges research has achieved several milestones for health research. The available potential mushroom bioactive compounds would be possible intelligence drugs for cancer and existence methods such as nanoemulsion will be promising for drug delivery to targeted cancer treatment.

Anticancer: Anticancer is a term defined as suppressing or control to abnormal cellular growth. The management of cancer used various chemical, physical and surgical approaches. The worldwide research outcomes and findings indicated that the varieties of bioactive components, that will be potential resources for cancer management, etc.

Immunomodulatory Activity: The potent bioactive compound (Flavonoids, Terpenes, polyphenols, and other compounds, etc.) will be capable of modifying or regulating the immune response or acted as an immunomodulator. It’s an important mechanism for cancer management.

Nanoemulsion: Nanoemulsion technique is categorized under the nano-technology and designed for quantifiable clinical and therapeutic application. The presently various nano-carriers-based nanoemulsions approach is widely targeted for a treat to various cancer. This therapy also overcomes various challenges such as low solubility, multidrug resistance, and toxicity, etc. Thus, nanoemulsions might be the solution to attain proficient and safe treatment of cancer. Nanoemuslison having several advantages such as nanometric size, ease of preparation, site-specific, drug encapsulation, non-immunogenic, biocompatibility, biodegradable, sustained and controlled release, large surface area, and thermodynamic stability, etc. Recently nanoemulsions are extensive investigated as drug carriers to improve the delivery rate of therapeutic agents or compounds. It will be formulated in a variety of forms such as liquids, sprays, foams, creams, ointments, and gels, etc. from mushroom bioactive components. All these potential developed nanoemulsions will be the great promising future of cosmetics, diagnostics, drug therapies, and biotechnologies.

Bioactive Components: Bioactive compounds are a huge category found in plants and mushrooms such as polysaccharides, fatty acids, proteins, peptides, terpenes, polyphenols, and flavonoids, etc. These particular compounds were obtained by proper extraction with followed standards guidelines. The variety of compounds has to have an important role in cellular mechanism and they direly or indirectly influence the cellular metabolic patterns. The bioactive compounds played a remarkable role such as antitumor, anti metastasic, antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiangiogenesis, etc.

Mushroom: A mushroom is a spore containing a fruiting body of a fleshy macro fungus. They are produced above on soil, ground, and waste agro substrate, etc. The numerous varieties of mushroom species have occurred in the biotic system. Accordingly, the edibility of mushrooms has been categorized, such as medicinal and edible mushrooms, etc. The mushrooms have a potent source of nutrients, rich in protein, carbohydrates, and fewer fats; furthermore, they are the main resources for bioactive compounds. The various mushroom directly prefers for culinary and many mushrooms used for treating human ailments etc.

Nanotechnology: It’s defined as cutting edges research area. In the present scenario, various nanotechnological approaches have been developed for curing disease that provides compatible drug delivery approaches, maximum absorption on target sites, with high effectiveness of clinical studies.

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