Mycoremediation of Lignocelluloses

Mycoremediation of Lignocelluloses

Saritha Vara (GITAM University, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8903-7.ch042

Abstract

The most abundant aromatic biopolymer on earth Lignin is extremely recalcitrant to degradation. It creates a barrier to solutions or enzymes by linking to both hemicellulose and cellulose preventing the penetration of lignocellulolytic enzymes into the interior lignocellulosic structure. Global attention has been gained by fungi owing to the potential use of their versatile enzymes for agriculture, medicines, industries and bioremediation. The combination of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, mediators, organic acids and accessory enzymes make some of the basidiomycete white-rot fungi to be able to degrade lignin efficiently. This review describes remediation of lignocelluloses by fungi, properties of fungi, their spatial distribution and the mechanisms of action which render them attractive candidates in biotechnological applications like biopulping, animal feed, genetic engineering and space exploration.
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Properties Of Lignocelluloses

The word lignin is derived from Latin word ‘Lignum’ meaning wood. It embodies three components of lignocellulosic biomass in addition to cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignin, the second most abundant natural substance in nature after cellulose is produced approximately 5 x 106 metric tons annually through industrial processes (Mai, Majcherczyk, & Huttermann, 2000). Lignin, most abundant renewable source of aromatic polymers owes it degradation mandatory for carbon recycling. Lignin chemically is a cross-linked macromolecule derived from the oxidative coupling of monolignols, mainly hydroxycinnamyl alcohols which are three main components comprising of p-coumaryl, coniferyl and synapyl alcohols. The composition of lignin is plant-specific, with molecular weight and linkage motifs varying according to plant species and environmental factors.

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