Nano-Bioremediation: Nanotechnology and Bioremediation

Nano-Bioremediation: Nanotechnology and Bioremediation

Sandeep Tripathi (NIMS University, India), R. Sanjeevi (NIMS University, India), J. Anuradha (NIMS University, India), Dushyant Singh Chauhan (NIMS University, India) and Ashok K. Rathoure (Independent Researcher, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-4162-2.ch012

Abstract

The functional aspect of nanotechnology (NBT) is driven either to accelerate the performance of materials and/or to reduce the quantity of materials that are used for the purpose. Most significantly, its potential attribute to the environment includes the treatment and remediation, sensing and detection, and pollution prevention. In general nano-bio remediation (NBR) involves the use of nano-materials either in in-situ (in place), or ex-situ (off-place) treatment of contaminated materials. To accomplish this, the elemental or zero-valent metals and like materials in nano-form (1-100 nm) have been applied as an instinctive need to embrace sustainable environment. The use of nanomaterials initially reduces the biodegradable contaminants and then it promotes to achieve the standard levels. Thus, the role of nano-materials could be an efficient, effective approach to remediate the environmental contaminant sustainably. However, further research is required to record the detailed fate of the nano-materials that are used in environment remediation.
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Nano-Biotechnology And Uniqueness Of Nanoparticles

Nanotechnology as we know in its modern and post-modern forms, is the young branch of knowledge but mankind has empirically used since thousands of years (Pradeep, 2007, Anuradha, 2013). It is an umbrella term covering wide range of technologies comprising structures and processes at nanometer scale (Abbasi et al., 2009). The potential of nanotechnology is often believed to revolve round the nanoparticles. The core versatility of the nanoparticles is the fact that they possess significant properties than that of bulk counterparts.

Nanoparticles or nanomaterials are in general termed engineered material possessing size between 1 nm and 100 nm, at least in one dimension. It includes the two groups either organic or and inorganic. The first category comprises carbon nanoparticles (fullerenes), while the second with magnetic, noble metal (e.g. palladium, gold and silver) and semiconductor nanoparticles (e.g. titanium dioxide and zinc oxide). Nanoparticles are fabricated either top down or bottom up approach. The traditional method of nanoparticles generation includes chemical or physical techniques. Of these, the former often uses hazardous reagents while the later involve energy-intensive and is highly expensive. In contrast, biotechnological approach emerged in the recent past involving biomolecules contained in microbes, algae or higher vascular and non-vascular plants to fabricate nanoparticles of desired shape and size in a similar way that mimics the nature (Figure 1). Thus biomimetic nanoparticles formations are much ‘clean’ and ‘green’owing great relevance to the field of nano-biotechnology (Abbasi et al., 2012; Anuradha et al., 2015a; 2015b).

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