Nanomaterial Surface Modifications for Enhancement of the Pollutant Adsorption From Wastewater: Adsorption of Nanomaterials

Nanomaterial Surface Modifications for Enhancement of the Pollutant Adsorption From Wastewater: Adsorption of Nanomaterials

Hamidreza Sadegh (West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin, Poland), Gomaa A. M. Ali (Al-Azhar University, Egypt), Hamid Jafari Nia (Islamic Azad University, Khorramabad Branch, Iran) and Zahra Mahmoodi (Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Iran)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 28
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5745-6.ch007
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With the development of dyeing, textile, leather, paper, and other chemical industries, an increasing amount of dye wastewater containing refractory organic dyes is discharged. Undoubtedly, much high content dye wastewater will lead to serious environmental issues such as color pollution, light penetration interference, and virulence to aquatic organisms, even endanger human health. Therefore, it is an imminent problem and has become a global concern to degrade dye wastewater efficiently. So far, many techniques have been used to degrade dyeing wastewater, such as chemical degradation, biological degradation, photochemical degradation, coagulation, membrane filtration, and combined methods. These methods have certain impacts on the degradation of dye wastewater, but usually with slow degradation rate, complex and high operation costs, as well as easily causing secondary pollution. The adsorption process is a simple, effective, and low-cost way to remove dyes.
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Surface Modification Techniques

Surface modification includes a number of chemical and physical methods (Figure 1). The chemical methods are involved protonation, saturation of metal oxide bonding amine groups and organic modification of aluminosilicates. The physical methods deal with the thermal treatment of the adsorbent, thereby increasing its surface area and porosity and where impurities are removed to expose surface functional groups that were not accessible to the adsorbate earlier. Enhanced nitrate removal by surface chemical modification of adsorbents is primarily due to firstly, an increase in surface positive charges; or secondly, providing new surface functional groups having a higher affinity for nitrate. The latter method also includes the recently developed technique of coating nitrate-selective ion exchange materials on carbon electrodes and applying electric potentials to the electrodes to create positive charges on the electrodes for nitrate adsorption (Biesheuvel et al., 2011; Kim & Choi, 2012).

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