Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites Thermal and Mechanical Properties Modelling

Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites Thermal and Mechanical Properties Modelling

Siddhartha Kosti (Rajkiya Engineering College, India)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 23
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7921-2.ch007

Abstract

This chapter deals with the modelling of nanomaterial and nanocomposite mechanical and thermal properties. Enrichment in the technology requires materials having higher thermal properties or higher structural properties. Nanomaterials and nanocomposites can serve this purpose accurately for aerospace or thermal applications and structural applications respectively. The thermal system requires materials having high thermal conductivity while structural system requires materials having high strength. Selection of the material for particular application is very critical and requires knowledge and experience. Al, Cu, TiO2, Al2O3, etc. are considered for thermal applications while epoxy-glass, FRP, etc. are considered for structural applications. Modelling of these nanomaterials and nanocomposites is done with the help of different mathematical models available in the literature. Results show that addition of the nanoparticle/composite in the base material can enhance the thermal and structural properties. Results also show that amount of weight percentage added also affects the properties.
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Introduction

Nanomaterials are defined as a combination of nanoparticles reinforced into the base material. Nanoparticles are nothing but the powder form of a solid metal in small size. Nanoparticles are of very small sizes (1 nm = 10-9m), they also have very high thermal properties, thermal conductivity heat capacity etc. They also possesses higher surface area to volume ratio, this property increases the heat transfer rate as amount of surface area available gets increased.

A lot of research is going in the field of nanoparticles behaviour analysis under different conditions or applications. They have been widely utilized in different applications, like in energy, construction, biomedical, chemical, electronics, agriculture, paints and cosmetics etc.

Energy

Nanomaterials are very helpful in energy field, as they possess enhanced thermal properties compared to the conventional materials. Nanomaterials are utilizing in solar and other energy conservation devices. Addition of nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the material which increases the rate of molecular momentum inside the material which results in increment in the heat transfer rate from the material. This increment in the heat transfer rate increases the efficiency of the system. As nanoparticle’s surface area to volume ratio is very high they provide higher surface area for transfer of heat compared to conventional material for available volume. This property further enhances the heat transfer rate and efficiency of the system. Literature study done in the field of solar cooling states that use of nanoparticles/nanomaterials increases the rate of solar cooling by considerable amount (Al-Shamani et al, 2014). Nanoparticles like Cu and Al are reinforced into the base material like water (H2O) or ethylene which enhances the effective thermal conductivity and heat transfer rate. This reinforcement can be done for different nanoparticle weight percentage, generally weight percentage vary from 0 to 20, as adding more nanoparticles can cause the problem of agglomeration or clustering and this reduces the performance. Use of nano technology in combustion engines, solar cells and capacitors has results in device improvements. A company named as ConsERV has developed a device, made of nano polymer layer which increases the cooling and heating efficiency of the system. Applied NanoWorks is company established in New York is working in the field of white LED, this can give this area a new dimension. There are other numerous applications of the nanomaterials which has results in the start of new ventures/companies.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the widely studied nanoparticles in the literature; they are very much suitable, for application in the aerospace as they have high thermal conductivity, high tensile strength and high modulus of elasticity. CNTs have 500 times better strength to weight ratio, electrical conductivity compared to the conventional material like steel, Al and titanium (Zhang, 2003; CMP Cientifica, 2002). CNTs are very flexible as they have Carbon-Carbon covalent bond. Nanotechnology can be utilized in other aerospace industry applications like in sensors, composites tires, radar technology etc.

Construction

Strength of the construction materials can be improved by nanotechnology. Nanocomposites can enhance the strength, load bearing capability and can also reduce the overall weight. In the construction industries nano fibres, carbon nanotubes and nano particles have shown prominent improvement in the buildings strength, durability and toughness. Different nanoparticles like SiO2, TiO2 and CaCo3 have been utilized in paints/coatings and sealants in the form of additives or fillers (Zhang, 2003; Bigley & Greenwood, 2003). (Masciangioli, & Zhang, 2003; Kuzumaki, 1998) studied the coating of TiO2 and Fe & Pd based nanoparticle coatings respectively to reduce the environmental contaminants by absorbing them.

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