Nanorevolution and Professionalizing University Education: Opportunities and Obstacles

Nanorevolution and Professionalizing University Education: Opportunities and Obstacles

Mahendra Rai (SGB Amravati University, India) and Shivaji Deshmukh (SGB Amravati University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2845-8.ch010


Nanotechnology (NT) is considered to constitute the basis of next technological revolution. It is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary subject covering physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. The present chapter discusses various applications of nanotechnology with respect to the relation with industries and to develop the human resources in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is progressing fast in the fields of electronics, textiles, packaging, auto and aerospace industries, sports, optoelectronics, environmental monitoring, food science, forensics, security, cosmetics, agriculture, medicines, etc. NT is impacting our daily life with fast pace, and thus can be considered as a driving force for industrial development. The science has long been working at this scale and below. Bionanotechnology or nanobiotechnology is an area in nanoscience, which is fast picking up for its application in human health and agriculture.
Chapter Preview


The field of nanotechnology was laid by Richard Feynman of California Institute of Technology, who in 1959 stated that “There is plenty of room at the bottom” (Zong et al. 2005; Miyazaki & Islam 2007; Majumder et al. 2007). Feynman is known for manipulating materials at the scale of individual atoms and molecules (Sahoo et al. 2007). He also presented a technological vision of miniaturization of materials, manipulating and controlling things on a small scale called “Nanotechnology”.

Despite the propaganda of nanotechnology in recent years, it is not a new technology, as Romans about 1600 years ago copied the color effect of butterfly wings, and in the British Museum, due to nanoparticles of gold and silver, glass cup looks jade green in natural light and an impressive red color when a bright light shines through it (Smith, 2006). Carbon nanoparticles are used for the manufacture of car tyres, while due to presence of nanoparticles in the atmosphere, the red and yellow colors are seen at sunsets (Smith, 2006).

Nanotechnology was also used by Indian craftsmen and artisans to make weapons and long lasting cave paintings about 2000 years ago. Studies confirmed the existence of carbon nanoparticles on sword of Tipu Sultan who was ancient ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore, India, and at Ajanta cave paintings in India. Richard Zsigmondy in 1902, for the first time observed and measured the nanoparticles, by using an ultramicroscope. In 1974, Norio Taniguchi used the term nanotechnology to refer to the engineering materials at nanoscale (Miyazaki & Islam 2007; Sahoo et al. 2007). Gerd Binnig invented scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Henrich Rohrer invented atomic force microscopy.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: