Nanotechnology-Based Studies in Systems Biology

Nanotechnology-Based Studies in Systems Biology

Priti Talwar (VIT University, India), Madhumathi Manickam (VIT University, India), Namrata Chaudhari (VIT University, India) and Palaniyandi Ravanan (VIT University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6363-3.ch026
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In recent years, nanotechnology-based studies have been employed in the area of systems biology. The current chapter aims to give a concise view of this emergent field of research, namely nano systems biology. A large number of such studies are based on understanding surface reactivities of a biological system. Another stream of studies is focused on imaging approaches using nano systems biology. In this chapter, the authors also illustrate state-of-the-art work using these approaches in nanomedicine.
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Nanotechnology Based Studies In Systems Biology

Nanotechnology is the science and engineering of manipulating matter on unprecedentedly small scales (a nanometer is a billionth of a meter) to create devices with novel chemical, physical and biological properties. Entirely new scientific questions may be inspired and addressed by the reagents and devices at the nano scale. The central components of systems biology are genetically programmed networks within cells and networks of cells. These components establish the organization and function of individual cells and tissues in response to environmental signals such as cell-to-cell communication within organ systems and whole organisms. In this context, disease is considered as a genetic or environmental reprogramming of cells to gain or lose specific functions that are characteristics of disease (Hood et al., 2004). A renowned work in this area is the renowned discovery of DNA coating nanoparticles (Spherical Nucleic Acid (SNA) constructs) by Mirkin et al (Mirkin, 2012). The attempt was to miniaturize the chemical systems and to design programmable nano particles. These gold nanoparticles became equivalent of a litmus-like test for DNA. Importantly, SNA can enter the cells; knock down genes without setting of cellular immune response (Nanoflares). Table 1 enlists state of the art system biology studies that employ nanotechnology methods.

Table 1.
Nanotechnology based studies in Systems biology
1Systems biology and nanomedicine in predictive, preventative, and personalized approach to medicine.(Hood et al., 2004; Weston and Hood, 2004)
2Cellular signaling dynamics analysis in development of micro fluidics, micro- and nanodevices, models.(Wikswo et al., 2006)
3Single molecule imaging and mathematical modeling used for making dynamic and kinetic models explaining unitary biological reactions in cells.(Du et al., 2006; Sako, 2006; Sako et al., 2012)
4Systems biology analysis revealed that unfolded protein-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response as the predominant event.(Tsai et al., 2011)
5Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles used for protein separation and therapeutic delivery of DNA and drugs (interactions identified using STRING database).(Salaklang et al., 2008)
6Computational methods for reverse-engineering complex gene regulatory networks to find suspect genes those seem to mediate cancer development.(Brock et al., 2014)
7System of interacting molecular networks and targeting disruptions in the system with nanoscale technologies.(Heath et al., 2009)
8Systems biology principles and nanoscale technologies are used for understanding synthetic systems with cell-like complexity.(Doktycz and Simpson, 2007)

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