Need for Rethinking Modern Urban Planning Strategies Through Integration of ICTs

Need for Rethinking Modern Urban Planning Strategies Through Integration of ICTs

Rounaq Basu (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India) and Arnab Jana (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2255-3.ch682
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Abstract

Recent progresses in ICTs have paved the way for innovative services, and interactive models and tools. Citizen participation and open innovation have become essential tools for urban planners. These concepts can be implemented through the crowdsourcing model, which is a people-centric approach to solve societal problems using Web 2.0 technologies. This has led to the collection and sharing of geocoded data through GIS. The large amount of data required is one of the drawbacks of GIS. However, collecting such data within short durations at minimum cost has now become possible through development of web-based surveys coupled with use of DBMS. The effectiveness and importance of these three tools (Crowdsourcing, GIS, and DBMS) in modern and future urban planning strategies cannot be undermined. In conclusion, the authors argue that integration of urban policies, modern technologies and fundamental concepts of engineering will lead to discovery of new solutions to important age-old urban problems.
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Background

Crowdsourcing is a relatively new concept that incorporates a variety of services and activities. It can be characterized by any category of collaborative activity over the internet (Estellés-Arolas & González-Ladrón-de-Guevara, 2012). Crowdsourcing involves mechanisms that aim to leverage the collective intelligence of users for a productive outcome (Brabham, 2009). Jeffrey Howe coined the term ‘crowdsourcing’ in an issue of Wired Magazine (Howe, 2006). Simply put, crowdsourcing harnesses the joint creativity of the public by creating an open call for proposals through Web 2.0 technologies in the hope of innovative and more robust solutions (Seltzer & Mahmoudi, 2013).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Crowdsourcing: The technique of presenting a problem statement to the public and floating an open call for solution proposals is known as crowdsourcing. The major advantage it possesses is that it uses modern Web technologies and tools for circulating the problem and collecting responses.

Urban Governance: It can be defined as the system of processes through which a city is managed on a short-term scale, and the long-term development agendas are formulated and realized.

Urban Planning: It is a techno-political process that deals with the development of land, environment and public welfare along with design of relevant infrastructure, such as transportation and communications, which form the urban environment.

GIS: A geographical information system (GIS) is a computer system that enables storage and display of different varieties of spatial data so that underlying trends and patterns can be identified through analysis.

Big Data: Vastly large data sets that cannot be analyzed through traditional data processing techniques are collectively known as Big Data. Organizations in possession of Big Data (majorly business organizations) are attempting to capture and analyze even more samples in order to make sound decisions based on human behavior.

DBMS: Database management systems (DBMS) serve as an interface between the database and users, helping to ensure that data is organized in an easily accessible and comprehensible structure.

ICT: Information and communications technologies (ICTs) include any software, middleware, hardware or system that enables the transfer of information in an electronic or digital form.

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