Negotiation of Form Among the Displaced: Developing a Corrective Feedback Paradigm for Refugees

Negotiation of Form Among the Displaced: Developing a Corrective Feedback Paradigm for Refugees

Alexander H. Jones
Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 22
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-2588-3.ch008
(Individual Chapters)
No Current Special Offers


This chapter presents a mixed-methods study of error sequences in an English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom comprised of refugees from multiple countries to answer the question: What does the negotiation of feedback look like among displaced, preliterate learners? Teacher-student dialogue at an international language learning centre was recorded and coded, totalling 12.5 hours of data. A total of 146 error sequences consisted of a learner error, followed by the teacher's feedback and the student's uptake. Results show that when content errors occurred among this population, elicitation, feedback that many scholars suggest is the most effective form, is not as effective as metalinguistic feedback. The reasons for this difference are consequently explored. Findings also indicate that certain types of feedback (metalinguistic feedback, elicitation, clarification request) lead to self-repair better than others (recast, explicit correction).
Chapter Preview


Given the increasing international awareness of refugee crises in recent years, more and more scholars have documented the effect displacement has on refugees’ well-being, usually related to physical or mental health and employment or socio-economic status (Garrido, 2013; Gerritsen et al., 2006; Jamil et al., 2005; Jorm et al., 2012; Krahn, Derwing, Mulder, & Wilkinson, 2000; Ou Jin Lee & Brotman, 2013; Peri, 2016; Slewa-Younan et al., 2017; Tabar, 2012; Tanle, 2013; E. M. Taylor et al., 2014; Uribe Guajardo, Slewa-Younan, Smith, Eagar, & Stone, 2016; Wright et al., 2017; Yaser et al., 2016). Fewer scholars have analysed the effect of displacement on refugees’ learning, or educational engagement, broadly speaking (Moinolnolki & Han, 2017; S. Taylor & Sidhu, 2012). One such recent example explored the literacy development practices of Karen refugee families in America (Quadros & Sarroub, 2016). Other examples have focused on refugees and science/technology (Dahya & Dryden-Peterson, 2016; Harper, 2017), peace/conflict learning (Kyuchukov & New, 2016), and, of course, English as a Second Language (ESL).

Some scholars have studied the linguistic and metapragmatic practices that enable or hinder refugee learning advancement in ESL curricula (Beiser & Hou, 2001; Koyama, 2015). Doris Warriner (2016), for example, wrote a salient article examining the semiotics of an ESL classroom comprised of refugees, finding that symbols and language in the classroom suppress the life advancement of adult refugee learners of English; images and texts, in other words, limited refugees’ employment imaginations beyond working minimum-wage jobs. Another related study found that refugees’ re-creation of their migration experiences in the classroom minimized unequal power relations in the ESL classroom between student and teacher, allowing refugees to better understand their identity (Stille, 2015). One other study advanced the notion that developing communicative competence in English, in addition to already known languages (i.e. becoming multilingual), constructs multilingual capital, an important skill unique to immigrants and refugees (Duran, 2016). However, there are few studies that actually analyse pedagogical practices within an ESL classroom comprised of refugees. Thus, this study seeks to address the present gap in the literature through focusing on one inevitable teaching practice: Negotiation of form, otherwise known as error correction or corrective feedback, to develop self-regulation.

Self-regulation refers to the culmination of research on the autonomous process of learning. Once unique to language acquisition, multiple disciplines have recently emphasized the importance of self-regulation in learning, including chemistry, mathematics, physical education, and physics (Gurcay & Balta, 2013; Eker, 2013; Uzuntiryaki & Capa-Aydin, 2013; Wilkinson & Prusak, 2013). Zimmerman’s (1990, 2000) original self-regulation concept and Oxford’s (2010) strategic self-regulation rendition highlight a general trend in language learning strategies discourse toward empowering the learner to participate in, control, regulate, and monitor his or her performance (Chularut & DeBacker, 2004). Teachers and facilitators therefore ought to structure lessons in ways that facilitate self-regulation in the classroom (Brown, 2014). One key area where self-regulation occurs, especially in language teaching and learning, is error correction. Here, the goal becomes self-repair, self-regulation’s counterpart within the error correction process.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Metalinguistic feedback: Metalinguistic feedback is a type of feedback that teachers can utilize with students. Specifically, it is a teacher’s pedagogical practice of helping students build a mental architecture to help them recognize their own errors, so that they can self-regulate.

Preliterate: This term refers to individuals who are learning a second (or more) language, but who are unable to read or write in their original language.

Refugee: A refugee is an individual who has moved to a new nation-state to flee political, religious, economic, or other forms of violence.

Immigrant: An immigrant is an individual who has moved to a new nation-state with the causation not from peril or violence.

Feedback: Akin to error correction, feedback specifically refers to the teacher’s role in the error correction process.

Error Correction: When teachers’ recognize a student’s error, they can try to correct the error in many ways. This term refers to the iterative process of correcting a student’s errors.

Elicitation: Elicitation is a type of feedback that teachers can utilize with students. Specifically, it is a teacher’s pedagogical practice of eliciting, or drawing out, from students their own knowledge about a topic or subject.

Complete Chapter List

Search this Book: