New Generation Management by Convergence and Individual Identity: A Systemic and Human-Oriented Approach

New Generation Management by Convergence and Individual Identity: A Systemic and Human-Oriented Approach

Beatriz Elena Molina Patiño (Bio Gerencia Virtual S.A.S.®, Colombia)
Copyright: © 2017 |Pages: 25
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-1019-2.ch006


In the era of knowledge and innovation, management education cannot be education as it was in the past. This chapter aims to contribute to the topic “New Era in International Management Education”. From the specification of new paradigms of business for the modern era, and definitions of administration, the author raises relevant convergences that necessitate new management qualifications, and so therefore, new forms of administrative education. A central convergence that is included in this chapter is the convergence that the author promotes in Bio Gerencia Virtual®: convergence of information, people and their natural environments, technology and customer orientation. In several countries, the idea of a global context is a foreign one. In this chapter the emphasis is on the challenge to be solved – making “global” synonymous with oneself or close to the human condition, sustainable and influenced largely by culture. We cannot educate for global leadership, with patterns of fragmented thought, or without awareness of satisfying own needs that alter global balance.
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When it comes to management, should we educate for the past or for the future?

In teaching management, we do not only educate an individual. In teaching management, we impart knowledge and skills that require organizations to participate actively in the society they serve. The results of the performance of an organization are also reflected in the results of the primary economic sector to which the company belongs and the results of the country where it operates. For over 30 years, the competitiveness of world economies has been measured, and it is known that this is the result of the combination of several factors that determine in turn the prosperity of countries and their inhabitants. Education is one of the most determinant factors of competitiveness. Education affects the individual and collective performance of a country. Therefore, the quality of education is even more important than its coverage. The perspective of time in its past, present and future dimensions can help define the quality of education. The perspective of time demonstrates the value of the opportunity of education to facilitate or not competitiveness. If one is educated by the past, the opportunity to build the future is lost. If one educates for the future, the possibility of providing options to improve the lives of individuals and societies exists.

When the importance of human capital is taken into account, the task of management education for the future is undertaken. Unfortunately, one continues to educate for the past and then knowledge and skills that are no longer needed or do not conform to what society needs are transferred. Education for the past hinders development and competitiveness. The Global Competitiveness Index -GCI- (World Economic Forum, 2015) brings together 114 indicators on 12 pillars. Pillar five is higher education and training. In the GCI update that is mentioned in the Competitiveness Report of 2015, the education pillar includes two sets of indicators: first group: Skills of the current workforce and the second group: Skills of the future workforce. Ten of the eleven specific indicators of the education pillar are advertised as new data for the updated GCI. In the report, the need for the GCI to include a greater emphasis on offering an education that meets the requirements of the XXI century such as the dissemination of knowledge and innovation is expressed. This task is beginning in the world. Specifically in higher management education, apart from the rankings of universities and Master in Business Administration - MBA-, programs measurements that allow us to recognize the impact or comparative monitoring of their performance are few and far between.

For example, in the Global Competitiveness Index -GCI- (World Economic Forum, 2015) pillar seven, Labor Market Efficiency, the reliance on professional management is an indicator that is measured on a scale of 1 to 7 and shows the answer to the question, “In your country, who holds senior management positions?” On the scale, 1 = “usually relatives or friends without regard to merit”, while 7 = “mostly professional managers chosen for merit and their qualifications” (World Economic Forum, 2015, p. 69). New Zealand, Norway and Finland are ranked in the top three positions in this indicator. Note that the three countries are in the upper stage of development according to the GCI; i.e., they are countries at the stage of innovation.

New Zealand ranks first with a score of 6.4, which means that for this country, management education significantly affects their competitiveness. New Zealand is ranked at position 16 in the GCI. It can be said that management education is a competitive advantage for the country, as it is for Norway and Finland.

Three less competitive economies in the world according to the GCI 2015-2016, Mauritania, Chad and Guinea, also occupy the last positions in the reliance on professional management indicator. These economies of Africa are in the early stage of development or factor-driven according to the GCI. Mauritania occupies the last position in the display, with a rating of 2.1. The main purpose of this chapter is to raise awareness of the need for management education for the future and not the past. Education of the past is useful for learning perspectives, approaches, theories, terms and techniques of management models that were designed for contexts of business in a previous era. Education of the past is good when there are no tools offered to solve current problems. Education of the past is helpful when the administrative teaching methodologies only consider the human brain, as if a human being is only a brain.

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