Non-Thermal Preservation of Dairy Products: Principles, Recent Advances, and Future Prospects

Non-Thermal Preservation of Dairy Products: Principles, Recent Advances, and Future Prospects

Alperen Koker (Middle East Technical University, Turkey), İlhami Okur (Middle East Technical University, Turkey), Sebnem Ozturkoglu-Budak (Ankara University, Turkey) and Hami Alpas (Middle East Technical University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1924-0.ch001
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Dairy products include carbohydrates, protein, fatty acids, and different micronutrients, such as minerals and vitamins. Thermal treatment is generally used in dairy products to provide product safety and increase shelf life. But it can also lead to undesirable effects on dairy products such as protein denaturation, maillard reaction, and loss of vitamins. Non-thermal technology is an alternative method in the preservation of food products due to improving product safety and shelf life without any negative effects on food nutritional content. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric field (PEF), ultrasound, cold plasma (CP), and pulsed light (PL) are the main non-thermal techniques that are used in the food industry. This chapter gives general principles of the non-thermal techniques, current applications in the dairy products, and recent advances in the dairy industry.
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High Hydrostatic Pressure (Hhp)

High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), also known as a cold pasteurization technique or pascalization, is a non-thermal technique in which extremely high pressures (between 200 MPa and 800 MPa) are applied to foods that are submerged in a liquid -mostly water- for a desirable period of time (t) and at a desirable temperature (T) (Doona, Kustin, & Feeherry, 2010). It can be said that HHP is a 3-Dimensional process because of having three different parameters as pressure, time and temperature. HHP can destroy vegetative cells of microorganisms, and enzymes (Alpas et al., 1999; Alpas, Lee, Bozoglu, & Kaletunç, 2003). This technique can be applied to all solid and liquid foods except for porous and dry products (Morales-de la Peña, Welti-Chanes, & Martín-Belloso, 2019). Classic heat treatments usually cause the formation of undesirable compounds and caramelization of products due to Maillard reaction and affect color, texture, and flavor of processed foods. Contrary to heat treatment, HHP application retains the nutritional and functional ingredients in the food material (Khan et al., 2018; Misra et al., 2017). Besides, HHP treatment is independent of the mass and geometry of the products (Koutchma, 2014; Misra et al., 2017). Due to these reasons, HHP is one of the most popular non-thermal food processing methods and recently used for the preservation of a wide range of industrial food products like dairy, ready-to-eat, fruit juices and seafoods (Misra et al., 2017). Apart from these, HHP treated food market value is expected to be increased to $ 54.77 billion in 2025 (Huang et al., 2017).

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