Ontological Dimensions of Semantic Mobile Web 2.0: First Principles

Ontological Dimensions of Semantic Mobile Web 2.0: First Principles

Gonzalo Aranda-Corral, Joaquín Borrego-Díaz
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-60960-042-6.ch042
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In this chapter, we advance, from the point of view of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, an analysis of which ontological dimensions are needed to develop Mobile Web 2.0 on top of Semantic Web. This analysis will be particularly focused on social networks and it will try to make an outlook about the new knowledge challenges on this field. Some of these new challenges will be linked to Semantic Web context, while others will be inherent to Semantic Mobile Web 2.0.
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Mobile Web 2.0 (MW2.0) can be considered the next revolution in both social networks and digital convergence. Roughly speaking, Mobile Web provides the web experience with ubiquity and agent mobility. These features determine significant differences between Web 2.0 (W2.0) and MW2.0, because users are able to generate content with explicit spatial (geographical), temporal, contextual or personal characteristics, as well as to create or use metadata. This last one is the basic tool used for building the Semantic Web as an envisioned project which consists in a Web where information turns into Knowledge by means of ontologies and data which are trustworthy machine-readable.

In Semantic Mobile Web 2.0 (SMW2.0) frameworks such as Web Engineering, the Semantic Web and W2.0, are joined to create a new paradigm. Novel techniques must add to this new paradigm innovative (formal) knowledge representation methods, e.g. to relate spatial reasoning and context awareness. The new paradigms should solve new problems, as the smart generation of metadata, contextual query/reasoning, geospatial reasoning and different ontological dimensions related to the new SMW2.0. According to Morfeo Ubiquitous Web Applications project (http://uwa.morfeo-project.org/lng/en), two semantic-related tasks to develop are: the design of advanced policies and formalisms (including those based on semantics) that enable adaptation to context, and the achievement of tools for rich device descriptions (based on ontologies) and the meaning of exposing this to Web applications.

This chapter focuses on challenges that emerge from SMW2.0, which are closely related to the ontological nature of knowledge generation, management and transformation. It is necessary to consider SMW2.0 is attempting to combine native Web 2.0 tools and use them with the SW ones, but both are apparently diverging. SW tools are designed for an environment where the system is mainly focused on client-server architectures, where the knowledge owner is the ontology one. Nonetheless, W2.0 users generate their own information, which have to be transformed into knowledge by means of usable applications. Actually this is not a new idea; it is -from a more general point of view- the Metaweb, envisioned by Nova Spivack (2004).

Within this context, the role of ontologies should be analyzed and, therefore, revised. Ontologies are considered as formal theories designed to organize and perform the trustworthy conversion of information into knowledge. In the case of SMW2.0, ontologies can be used in several dimensions of Knowledge Organization and Representation (KOR) and, within this chapter, some of them will be discussed. The reader is warned about the amazing growth of mobile telecommunications, applications and services, which prevent to isolate all of these (some of them are appearing in emerging research and multidisciplinary fields, as, for example, Urban Informatics). Other interesting and controversial applications as contextual advertising or applications on the idle screen in mobile devices (Voulgaris, Constantinou & Benlamlih, 2007 and Constantinou, 2009) are unexplored territories for KOR techniques.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Agents: Autonomous entity which observes and acts upon an environment and directs its activity towards achieving goals. They are usually integrated in multiagent platforms where they can act socially.

Ontologies: According to T. Gruber, an ontology is a “formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization”. This implies that ontologies provide a shared formal common language for modeling features of domain discourse.

Geolocation: Identification of the physical geographic location of a mobile device, website visitor or other. Geolocation is a new native information source for mobility computing.

Urban Informatics: Emerging research field devoted to use physical and digital information along the city as a source of new applications that can be managed by users through devices, which read information, data and knowledge in situ about current location in the city.

MetaWeb: According Nova Spivack, MetaWeb is the junction of social web and semantic web technologies, achieving the also called “Web of Intelligence”

Semantic Web: Project whose main aim is to transform information into knowledge, enabling it to make WWW machine-readable and reasonable.

Semantic Mobile Web 2.0: A new generation of collaborative web applications based on mobile devices and empowered by semantic web technologies.

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