Operator 4.0 Within the Framework of Industry 4.0

Operator 4.0 Within the Framework of Industry 4.0

Sarbjeet Singh (Luleå University of Technology, Sweden) and Phillip Tretten (Luleå University of Technology, Sweden)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-3904-0.ch007
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Operator 4.0 is a smart and skilled operator who augments the symbiosis between intelligent machines and operators. Better integration of Operator 4.0 in Industry 4.0 can bring emphasis on human-centric approach, allowing for a paradigm shift towards a human-automation cooperation for inspiring the compulsion of human-in-the-loop. This further enhances the domain knowledge for the improvement of human cyber-physical systems for new generation automated systems. This cooperation of humans and automation makes stability in socio-technical systems with smart automation and human-machine interfacing technologies. This chapter discusses the design principles of Industry 4.0 and Operator 4.0 human-cyber physical systems.
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Aa described by Reyes Garcia et al. (2019), the industrial scenario is radically changing due to the technology innovations of the last decades. Industry 4.0, allows collaboration between operators and machines by integrating robotics, automation and data driven technologies into intelligent workspace. This interaction offers significant impact on transforming industrial tasks to accommodate production variability by introducing collaboration between operators and production systems for the development of future workplaces improving safety aspects during the design phase (Martinetti et al., 2017; Martinetti et al. 2019). Integration of operator 4.0 in Industry 4.0 (Figure 1) brought more emphasis on human-centricity, allowing for a paradigm shift towards a human-automation (David Romero et al. 2015) cooperation. This shift emphasis on human cyber-physical systems i.e. more efficient and effective cooperation of system with humans instead of substituting human skills and abilities. Operator 4.0 (David Romero et al. 2016) work will be qualitatively developed and flexible, and will require new qualifications to understand the digital technology in Industry 4.0. It is important that smart factories should motivate the operators in gaining knowledge of new skills. The Operator 4.0, paradigm shift cannot flourish just by presenting new technologies. Work tasks needs to be redesigned and new approaches to training are desirable to support continuous development of skills.

Figure 1.

Integration of operator 4.0 in Industry 4.0


Design Principles Of Industry 4.0: Operator 4.0 Prespective

The existing design principles of Industry 4.0 (Figure 2) needs to addressed from user centric perspective for better designing and developing Industry 4.0. As indicated by several works (Borchiellini et al. (2013); Labagnara et al. (2013)), the starting point of a successful project where human operators and technical systems need to interact is the Prevention through Design (PtD) approach in order to minimize the likelihood of unplanned situations that could damage the overall system safety.

Interoperability and System integration

Operator 4.0 will have access to smart products and smart factory and be able to connect, communicate and work together. Interoperability (David & João, 2020) involves accessing real-time data that leads the way to a new approach for manufacturing units to improve their nproduction operations. It allows manufacturing partners (including customers, suppliers, and other departments) and their machines to share information accurately and quickly. It allows operators, resources, smart products and smart factories to connect, communicate and work together. The standardization of data is a critical factor for interoperability because this will boost the user centric approach also helps in the components to understand each other.

Figure 2.

Design principles of industry 4.0 for better development of operator 4.0


System integration: Human System Integration (HSI)

Human system integration is the integration of human needs within system design. Its human-related considerations during system design, development, test, production, use and disposal of systems, subsystems, equipment and facilities (SAE International. 2019 & INCOSE, 2010). In order to have better integration of system and operator, HIS process objectives should include (a) user centric design for best human-machine system performance, (b) the system should comply with limitations and capabilities of the operator, (c) better control on life cycle costs of the system, (d) warrant system safety (Clark & Goulder, 2002). Figure 3 reflects describes human system integration of railway system

Figure 3.

Human system integration: railway system


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