Optimization of Dynamic Power for System on Programmable Chip SOPC: Power Optimization

Optimization of Dynamic Power for System on Programmable Chip SOPC: Power Optimization

Mehdi Jemai (University of Monastir, Tunisia), Siwar Ben Haj Hassine (National School of Engineers of Sousse, Tunisia), Bouraoui Ouni (National School of Engineers of Sousse, Tunisia), and Abdellatif Mtibaa (University of Monastir, Tunisia)
Copyright: © 2018 |Pages: 30
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3935-3.ch017
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In this chapter, the authors present a new scheduling algorithm that brings a reduction in dynamic power consumption by achieving components scheduling while holding the global latency of the application. The main idea of that algorithm is to augment the latency of some components without impacting the dependency constraint and degrading the global latency of the system. There exist many solutions that manage to increase component's latency; one of them is through decreasing the frequency of their corresponding clocks. Generally, such a method leads to an augmentation in global latency of a system. However, this algorithm manages to reduce the consumed power and hold the same global latency of the system. The presented algorithm has been tested and it provides a significant gain in power at both simulation and physical levels.
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Currently, the implementation of electronic systems leads to two main directions.The first one is summed up by the increasing complexity and the second one is reflected in significant functional variability. According to the famous law of Moore, a migration towards geometries of technological smaller processes is noticed. Therefore, it is expected today to have more than 12 billion transistors per chip when using a standard 20 nm technology. The number of transistors reached a level of 7.1 billion and 2.6 billion in Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and general purpose microprocessors, respectively. The second direction, attempts to integrate various complex functions with higher performance. Applications Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) with a number of transistors greater than 200 million per chip and standard parts (ASSP) applications with transistors greater than 100 million per chipwill be replaced by System in Package(SiP) andSystem on Chip (SoC). Practically speaking, 70% to 80% of today's integrated circuits are System on Chips, ranging from targeted applications to new microprocessors and integrated telecommunications systems.

The quality / performance of these devices is not only measured by what types of features these devices are capable of, but also how long these gadgets survive without being plugged into the supply voltage to be recharged. There is an increased demand for a reduced form factor or a smaller size of such devices, which is generally determined by the power consumption of such devices.

Since power dissipation is one of the most important parameters that improve the reliability and performance of these systems, power minimization has become a vital and critical aspect while creating a system on chip. Although embedded systems seem to be able to meet the demand for processing power and flexibility of complex applications, such systems are very complicated to design and optimize. Thus, the design methodology plays a major role to ensure the product success.

Without a well-established methodology for design and verification, the complexity of these circuits results in an increasing number of functional errors, which can lead to failures and multiple re-designs. Previously, the conventional design of a heterogeneous embedded system consists on carrying out the algorithm design, the hardware design and the software design separately and sequentially. Given that the expected growth rate of conventional design productivity is much lower than the complexity of the system, a new approach has emerged as a new design methodology in recent years. It is called hardware / software (HW / SW) co-design.

This methodology is divided into two levels: high level and low level. Traditionally, the hardware design flow begins with the register transfer level (RTL) arriving to the logic level and ending with the realization of the circuit. The methods of power estimation and optimization at the low level have been widely studied. However, the increase in current demand and the reduction of time-to-market of electronic equipment has forced designers to adopt high-level models in their design flow. Thus, high-level techniques have become the vital today’s requirement.

Several techniques have been proposed in order to have a less consumable and more reliable systems. These techniques are situated on several levels of abstraction while impacting with a different way the final consumption of the circuit

High level synthesis is a process of translating a behavioral description into a set of connected storage and functional units. The basic operations executed in high-level synthesis are partitioning, scheduling and allocation. The partitioning algorithms divide a behavioral or structural description into subscriptions in order to reduce the size of the problem or to satisfy certain external constraints. Scheduling algorithms schedule variable assignments and time slot operations, and distribute partitions into storage and functional units.

Key Terms in this Chapter

RTL: ( Register Transfer Level): Is a high level description which models a synchronous circuit in terms of the flow of digital signals between hardware registers, and the logical operations performed on those signals.

Dynamic Power: Is the power dissipated due to the switching activity during charging and discharging of the load capacities and due to the short-circuit power caused by a short-circuit current that occurs during changes in the states of the logic gates.

SoC (System on Chip): Is an integrated circuit that integrates many components of a computer or other electronic systems. It may contain analog, digital, mixed-signal, and often radio frequency functions all on a single substrate.

FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array): Is an integrated circuit designed to be programmed by the user after manufacturing.

ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit): Is an integrated circuit (IC) manufactured for a particular use, rather than intended for general purpose use.

HLS (High Level Synthesis): Sometimes referred to C synthesis, behavioral synthesis, algorithmic synthesis, electronic system level (ESL) synthesis, or is an automated design process that interprets an algorithmic description of a desired behavior and creates electronic hardware that implements that behavior.

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