Optimization of Spectral Composition and Energy Economy Effectiveness of Phyto-Irradiators With Use of Digital Technologies

Optimization of Spectral Composition and Energy Economy Effectiveness of Phyto-Irradiators With Use of Digital Technologies

Sergey Stepanovich Mironyuk (Uman National University of Horticulture, Ukraine), Alexander Smirnov (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia), Alexander V. Sokolov (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia) and Yuri Proshkin (Federal Scientific Agroengineering Center VIM, Russia)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9420-8.ch008
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It is known that in the case of technology use of the supplementary lighting, an irradiation spectral composition heavily influences the effectiveness of the photosynthesis processes, development and productivity of vegetable crops. Hence, the definition of general points at development and projecting of modern phyto-irradiators is one of high-priority tasks in techniques development for plants growing in conditions of protected ground. The research is aimed at reviewing and assessing the effectiveness of existing sources of illumination used in modern systems of supplementary lighting and at deduction of general points of development and projecting of phyto-irradiators based on results of laboratory investigations with the use of modern digital technologies of monitoring and data analysis. The results of the comparative tests of light emitting diodes-based phyto-irradiators showed that the energy consumption per product kilogram is less than in the case of LED-irradiators. Based on the research results, general points were deducted for use at development of modern LED-phyto-irradiators.
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The plants cultivation effectiveness at artificial illumination and influence of irradiation spectral composition on crops growth and productivity has been studied for quite long time. Being ones of the first in this area as early as in 1865, Russian scientists A.S. Famintsin and I.P. Borodin conducted systematic experiments on artificial illumination action on plants. As light source, petroleum-lamps acted. As object for watching, the water plant spirogyra was taken. In the course of the experiment, formation of starch was observed in chloroplasts.

In 1895 with use of voltaic arc, French botanist Bonnier sprouted seeds and rootstocks of herbs. In the same year by researcher F.W. Rane, first attempts were done of incandescent lamps use as artificial illumination for plants growing. In 1922, American scientist Harvey raised a plant based on completely artificial illumination. In USSR, this experiment was reproduced by Maximov with use of wolfram incandescent lamps.

One of first significant works on influence study of spectral composition of artificial irradiation on photosynthesis effectiveness was made by Hoover in 1937. In his studies, he compared results of wheat cultivation under various light sources: incandescent lamps, mercury lamps and solar light. In the course of the studies, it was established that in the course of photosynthesis process, plant absorbs only a part of solar spectrum, which was called photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). For every plant, PAR parameters are unique and can vary much at different photo-culture.

A large volume of studies for PAR parameters finding out for different vegetable cultures was conducted by МсCree and Inada (Inada, 1978). One of results of these works was obtainment of an averaged curve of action spectrum of green leaf photosynthesis.

Figure 1.

Averaged curve of action spectrum of green leaf photosynthesis

(according to МсCree’s data, 1972)

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