Organizational Culture in Higher Education

Organizational Culture in Higher Education

Ali Rıza Erdem (Pamukkale University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9850-5.ch011
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Abstract

Universities who are higher education organizations, have an academic and autonomous construction by performing education, basic and scientific researches, community's duty functions that they take on, they improve a particular organizational culture. The organizational culture that a university has makes it different from other universities by its values,basic assumptions and norms, leaders and heroes, symbols and language,stories and legends, ceremonies and customs. In this study, the terms organization and culture were clarified first and the culture of organization and organization culture in the higher education was studied afterwards.
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Introduction

Table 1.
The Story of Five Monkeys
Five monkeys are put in a cage, with a ladder in the middle and hang the bananas up above the ladder. When a monkey wants to reach bananas by climbing the ladder, they pour the cold water over their heads. Each monkey who tries the same is got wet with cold water, and all get soaked at the end of these experiments.

After a while, the monkeys who move towards the bananas are prevented by the others. When one of the monkeys heads to the bananas hanging up at the top of the ladder to satisfy his hunger, the others pull it down from the ladder and beat him, because they know very well that whoever attempts to get the bananas fails and they get wet with cold water. After a while, they accept the truth, they start walking around in the cage by looking at the bananas they want to eat, but they know well that they won’t be able to do.

Afterwards, one of the wet monkeys is taken out of the cage and a new one is placed instead. The first thing this new monkey does is climbing the ladder to reach the bananas, but the others don’t allow him to do that and try to prevent him, but the new one cannot understand why the other four monkeys which are in the cage earlier prevent him to get the bananas. The new monkey who is quite hungry again makes a second attempt sometime later and this costs an arm and a leg for him. He is prevented and beaten by the other four monkeys even before approaching to the ladder. He never understands that why he’s always beaten by the others. As he has understood that he would be beaten for his attempts to reach the bananas, he also-like the other four- starts walking around the cage by watching the bananas from a distance although he is starving.

After a while, the second of the wet monkeys is taken out of the cage and a new one is put. As soon as the second new monkey gets in to the cage, he just climbs the ladder to get the bananas and of course he is beaten by the others. The most interesting point is that who beats the second one violently is the 1st new monkey... The third one of wet monkeys is also replaced. This third new monkey is punished at his first attempt. Two monkeys arrived recently have no idea about why they are beating this new monkey.

Finally, the 4th and the 5th of the wet monkeys are replaced with the new ones. These two new monkeys run towards the ladder as soon as they see the bananas., but, these new ones were beaten by the other three monkeys who came in to the cage earlier and the beaten by the others and never know why they were beaten. Though a bunch of bananas was hanging up over them, they do not approach to the ladder. Because here, it has always been this way and it will always be like that.

Today, it is seen that a rapid change have been experienced, it has been getting harder for some organizations to keep up with this change, while others have been the determiner of the change. It has been observed that organizations experiencing difficulty to keep up with the rapid change are weak because there is an uncertainty about what is good what is bad for them, what is aimed and what is not aimed and what should be done and what should not be done (see Table 1). When we have look at the organizations determining the rapid change, it’s clearly seen that they’re strong to have determined this change not by chance, but in accordance with the hypotheses, norms and the values they have. In this study, first the terms “organization” and “culture” were explained and then “organizational culture” and “organizational culture in the higher education” was thoroughly examined.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Organization: Organization Barnard (1994) AU106: The in-text citation "Organization Barnard (1994)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. is described as “A system based on two or more people’s’ power or activities that’s been coordinated consciously”. Organization Schein (1970) AU107: The in-text citation "Organization Schein (1970)" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. is explained “as the rational coordination of the activities of people who become together by making and sharing jobs to realize a purpose. On a large scale, the organizations are the basic tools constituted to able to solve the problems and the business which people can’t come over or they can’t realize”.

Leadership: The management of the equipment dimension of educational technologies in teacher training is the effective use of the available equipment.

Management: The leadership in the dimension of the equipment of educational technologies in teacher training is that it is regularly renewed by the state of the art technology.

Urban Legend: It is a name given to the folkloric fiction stories that spread on the grapevine, and are apocryphal. As in many folkloric stories, it cannot be said that urban legends are not always fiction but generally bastardised, exaggerated and spiced stories. Although their names are “urban legend”, the subjects of them do not have to be from cities.They are called with this name in order to be distinguished from traditional folkloric stories (Wikipedia, n.d AU108: The in-text citation "Wikipedia, n.d" is not in the reference list. Please correct the citation, add the reference to the list, or delete the citation. ).

Third Generation University: Initiative university in complex cooperation systems in hybrid structures where public, industry and university borders are engaged ( Kiper, 2010 : 11). The essentiality in third generation university is to present the information produced by providing university-industry cooperation for the use as a patent or technology to industry/market. There is a tendency for the third generation university, in other words for an effective providing university-industry cooperation in the world.

Higher Education: Higher education appears as an important element in producing knowledge, and growing qualified human power that a country requires. When we hear the words higher education, university comes in our mind.

Organizational Culture: Pettigrev, 1979 who makes the theory obtained to the area first, describes organizational culture as “The system of senses shared by a group”. Schein, 1984 who concerns organizations as a group, defined it as “The patterns of shared basic hypothesis to solve the problems what can be come across in the process of internal integrity and external adaptation is learned by the members of a definite group whose validity is approved, as efficient to be transfered, and consequently a correct way of understanding, thinking and feeling related to the new members or problems”. Organizational Culture can be described with all councils and foundations, in forming formal or informal groups, who reflects all characteristics of the community and as an element, arranging relationships with it’s environment.

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