Organobentonites with Crystalline Layer Separation Used for Adsorption in Water Treatment

Organobentonites with Crystalline Layer Separation Used for Adsorption in Water Treatment

E. Manríquez Reza (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Mexico), J.J. Pérez Bueno (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Mexico), F. Estrada Arreola (Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Mexico), L.M. Avilés Arellano (Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, México), J.F. Pérez Robles (Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Unidad Querétaro, México), R. Nava Mendoza (Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (UAQ), México) and A. Hurtado Macías (Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, S.C., Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6363-3.ch023
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Abstract

In this chapter, the surface modification of a natural bentonite was performed with surfactants of different ionic nature: HDTMA and TX100 as cationic surfactant and nonionic surfactant, respectively. The results show the successful modification of sodium bentonite with an ionic surfactant and a non-ionic surfactant. It was observed that the modification of bentonite with HDTMA and TX-100 was carried out by different mechanisms. HDTMA on the external surface causes the decreasing in surface area and changes in surface charge. In the case of the clay modified with Triton X-100, surface changes were small. Despite this, it verified the existence of TX-100 in the outer area of the bentonite.
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Background

Bentonite is a commercial name of a clay belonging to the family of the smectite with a high content of montmorillonite (Giese et al., 2002). The smectite are expandable type 2:1clays. They are shaped by an octagonal aluminum layer between two layers of silica tetrahedra. The forces that maintain the layers joined are relatively weak, where there are interlaminar spaces that expand with the increase in the water content within the inner layers. The cationic hydration between the structural units is a unique property of the smectite type clays. This process depends on the balance between the electrostatic attraction cation-layer and the hydration energy of the cation. When layers of water are interspersed and the separation between the layers increases, the forces that dominate are electrostatic repulsion between layers, which contributes to the process of swelling and can causea complete dissociate among layers.

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