Orientism Management Strategy for Training Policy-Makers in Emergency Decision-Making

Orientism Management Strategy for Training Policy-Makers in Emergency Decision-Making

Luisa dall'Acqua (Scientific Lyceum TCO, Italy & University of Bologna, Italy)
Copyright: © 2019 |Pages: 36
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7903-8.ch006

Abstract

Policy-making is asked to define criteria and decisional support to respond to emergencies and a complex mix of social, environmental, economic, and cultural problems. Politics, especially at the highest levels, requires preparing professionals able to manage the opportunities offered by new technologies in the context of security and management. Risk analysis is an increasingly urgent necessity and challenge. Research data needs to be packaged into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers make an evidence-informed policy. The objective of this chapter is to offer a framework of analysis (Orientism Management OM Framework) useful for training policy-makers to develop a multi-perspective informed policy. It intends orienting the variety of backgrounds, interests, knowledge, skills, and the whole personality of the trainees, individually or within a work team.
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Introduction

New technology implementation, the welfare state, new generation rights, global policies, and sustainable development goals are just some of the fundamental elements that must inspire the art of good governance. To manage them, a common idea is that a politician today must possess some basic requirements (Pollino Tour, 2017):

  • Holding a basic culture (better a degree)

  • Holding an ability to public speaking, participating in debates

  • Proposing a vision, knowing how to build, having clear ideas, and knowing how to communicate

  • Start small experience, ie always starting from a level of local political experience

  • Being always up-to-date and active locally, participate in debates, events and give speeches and get to know local decision-makers

  • Using social media to promote ideas and knowing how to interact with all the media

  • Having organizational and management skills, decision-makership and management, to organize their staff, the election campaign, fundraising

  • Knowing how to implement growth and development strategies

The politician is asked above all to be able to take decisions appropriate to the problems to be faced: conclude a trade treaty, make a law to combat corruption, introduce or abolish a tax, deal with the problem of immigration, change or not the text of the Constitution, planning an institution or health reform. These all decisions require training in this regard, on both individual problem and identifying the unexpected effects.

It is necessary that every single sector policy is framed in a general political line that has characteristics of coherence and unity. That of the politician is a complex activity, which does not allow arbitrary simplifications, and requires knowledge, decision, creative design of solutions and courage.

The formation of the ruling classes was fundamental in Greece and in Rome. Plato described a long training path and believed that a man could not deal with politics before the age of 35. Cicero speaks of it extensively, as well as in Italy more recently, from the State Unification onwards.

P. Villari, in the “Southern Letters” (1878), writes: “Have you ever known a country where slander is so powerful and so greedy, wherein such a short time an equal number of honorable reputations has been torn apart? Mediocrity is a leveling power, it wants to reduce all men to its measure, it hates the genius that it does not understand, it detests the ingenuity that destroys the harmony of its coveted equality ” (Pernicone, 1993; Sida, n.d.).

In order to have a complete dimension of the educational context of the policy-making, it is necessary to deepen the growth and career path in the various European and extra-European contexts.

For example, France is a witness of excellence in the formation of the politician of the future. The Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Paris, better known as Sciences Po, is one of the best universities in the world in the field of political science, but above all it is the historical institution for the formation of the French political and administrative elite and European Union, has formed four Presidents of the French Republic, eleven prime ministers, numerous foreign heads of state, political and diplomatic personalities.

Instead, in Italy for years there were the party schools, which, however, presented a formative activity dedicated to the political thought and values of the political party to which they belong. Currently, Italy is moving towards a type of training of the political class that looks more at the competence of the person, rather than at his activity within the party of reference.

This research intends to put key questions and related criticalities of Policy-making School, proposing a conceptual interpretation, possible strategies, and tools to manage, which can attempt to explain how policymaking happens which typically adopt company productions or cyclic modes of analysis, reducing policy making to a rational, objective process of steps and stages, especially to govern emergencies.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Uncertainty: Describes any situation without certainty, whether or not described by a probability distribution. Uncertainty is caused by natural variation and/or incomplete knowledge (lack of understanding or insufficient data).

Risk Management Policy: Overall intentions and direction of an organization related to risk management.

Safety Decision-Maker: The person or organizational unit who decides on a course of action in relation safety.

Orientism: A new multi-dimensional KM approach to improve the people’s ability to manage decisions and own change of perspective, according to natural, social, artificial environments, in personalized multi-user dynamic, assigned value to multiple reference points, and multi-interpreting paradigms.

Natural Hazard: Natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage.

Factor of Safety: The ratio of system resistance to the peak design loads, often calculated in accordance with established rules.

Subjects at Risk: Population, buildings and engineering works, infrastructure, environmental features, and economic activities in the area affected by a hazard. Such risk is usually not required unless reasonably practicable measures are available at low cost in terms of money, time, and effort.

Acceptable Risk: A risk which everyone impacted is prepared to accept. Action to further reduce.

Decision-Making Model: An analytical construct that identifies the essential elements of the decision-making process (i.e., the decision maker, his cognitive attitudes, the research activities of the solutions, the modalities and criteria of the choice, and above all, the relationships that exist between all these different elements).

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