Out of School Children and the Drop Out Problems as a Complex Case: Turkey and Other Countries

Out of School Children and the Drop Out Problems as a Complex Case: Turkey and Other Countries

İlknur Maya (Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey)
Copyright: © 2014 |Pages: 13
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6070-0.ch017
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Abstract

This chapter aims to explore the issues of out-of- school children and drop out children-which are observed in the Turkish education system as a complex situation, and to make a comparative analysis of the current situation with some other countries. In data analysis- that is to say, in determining the number and rate of out of school children and dropouts in EU countries, the United States and Japan according to gender and according to the stages of education- the arithmetic averages of the relevant values and the percentages were checked. The figures of the countries mentioned were compared with those of Turkey, and were interpreted. Consequently, out of school children and drop out problems were found to be higher in Turkey than in the other selected countries (i.e. the EU countries, the United States, and Japan).
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Complexity, Educational Organizations, Out Of School Children And The Drop Out

The science of complexity and its appearance in the issues of management date back to the last 20 years (Ozyilmaz, 2008). Complexity theory is still developing and clarifying its central tenets, paradigmatic principles, applications, derivatives, methodologies, foci and coherence (Morrison, 2010). Thus, it is one of the issues difficult to define exactly and to determine the borders (Waldrop, 1997).

Complex system can be defined as a dynamic system which interacts in connection with one another and which is made up of several parts (Beinhocker, 1997; Kochugovindan & Vriend, 1998). What makes something complex is not the number of its components or their variation, but the connectedness of the major components (Battram, 1999).

The complexity property is necessary for organizations to stay alive and for their health. In research conducted by Ordu and Tanriogen (2013), it was found that there was a positive correlation between the health of organizations and the property of complexity. Complex situations display the properties of dynamism, uncertainty and unlimitedness. Moreover, loose interactions which cannot be clearly defined are available between the numerous parts in complex situations. If the complex situation we deal with (the out of school children and dropouts) represents a problem in the organization, it is important and necessary to measure the complex situation in both quantity and quality (Ercetin, 2001). Hence, the need to carefully analyse the connections related to the problem arises.

Although the complexity theory began to be widely used early in the circles of natural sciences, anthropology, and economy, its use in the field of education was partly limited, disorderly and in fragments (Morrison, 2002). Davis and Sumara (2005) point out that the science of complexity does not tell educators and educational researchers what to do in certain situations, but that it can help them with how to concentrate their efforts. We see that there is only a small number of research studies (Fong, 2006; Jakubowicz, 2006; Morrison, 2002, 2006; Ordu & Tanriogen, 2013; Tchiang, 2006) on the use of complexity theory in the field of education. The existing ones were found to deal with the issues of benefiting from the complexity theory in reform (Siu, 2008) and change (Peurach & Marx, 2010) practises in schools, complexity and the beginning principal (Crow, 2006), complexity and school curriculum management system (Fong, 2006) and complexity, parental involvement and the impact of economic forces (Tchiang, 2006). This study handles the problem of out of school children and dropouts as a complex situation in the sytem of education.

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