Overview of Gender With Examples From Turkish Media

Overview of Gender With Examples From Turkish Media

Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 16
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-0128-3.ch001
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In this study, the representation of gender in the media was examined. Examples of the media representations in the media has been presented as an introduction to the book. Gender development takes place in news, series, advertisements and the prevailing gender in cinema. After the theory part which includes academic studies and differences from sex. It was supported by examples from the media. In the study, women, men and homosexual representations in the Turkish media have been examined. At the end of the study, women have been depicted in the media in a disadvantaged and secondary position. Especially the news that the word “woman” in the news is reinforcing the disadvantageous position of women. In series and advertisements, women are either a carrier of an object or traditional role in the face of a man's perspective. In addition, men reinforce their dominant position in the society as well, while homosexuals are also disadvantaged like other women and continue their positions in the media.
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The Concept Of Gender

Ann Oakley, who introduced the concept of gender to sociology, defines gender as a socially unequal division between masculinity and femininity. (Marshall, 2005: 98). In contrast to the biologically determined sex, social gender is a cultural issue, which is constructed in different ways by different cultures (Fay, 2001: 86). Sex is often used by sociologists to describe the anatomical and physiological differences that cause the body to be defined as male or female. Gender is related to social and cultural differences between males and females and does not have to be a consequence of the sex of the individual. (Giddens, 2012: 505). The first studies on gender are about womanhood. In fact, Giddens (2012: 509) states that, thinking of the feminists' concerns about women's social incapacity, it is not surprising that initial gender-based research has almost focused on women and femininity.

From the historical point of view of the concept of gender, strong women's movements emerged in the first quarter of the twentieth century in socialist parties in Germany, USA and other countries. These movements, although some arrangements in the field of child care and work done, couldn't survive for a long time. It was seen that these policies were marginalized by the freezing of socialism in the West. The concept of social role was introduced in the 1930s. The concepts of “gender role” female role “and “male role” were frequently used in the 1940s. (Connell, 1998: 55-56). Connell (1998: 57) argues that similar studies by three academicians (Mead, Parsons and Beauvoir) helped to take a contemporary form of gender, in the mid-twentieth century. These three academians’ Works have tried to unify gender roles and the analysis of work sharing which has been understood in the scope of gender roles (p. 58).

Günindi Ersöz (2016: 22) points out that gender has a contribution to feminist thought, and it is important to point out that social discrimination among the sexes can be tackled only through cultural change.

Men and women learn their roles in social life in the context of their own cultures. The society engrains in gender roles by the names they give from their infancy, the toys they buy, the design of the rooms and the color of their clothes. For example, the names of predators such as “Sahin” and “Kartal” are given to boys; the names that emphasize the beauty and the kindness of the person in terms of tone and intonation such as “Narin”, “Ceylan”, and “Meltem” are given to women. (Günindi Ersöz, 2016: 25). Female and male infants learn the sex roles expected from them by their family, school, social environment, work life and through mass media. For example, men are expected to “be the head of family” and “earn money and make a living for the family” ; women are expected to “be mother” and “be a wife who is loyal to her husband”.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Gender: It is the whole of the roles that society expects from women and men other than biological sex.

Fetishism: The situation of an individual in which he/she uses the objects of the opposite sex and shows the sexual urges he/she feels.

Feminism: It is the name given to the movement that suggests that women should be equal to men both in social (education, work, family life and political life).

Sex: It is a concept referring to the innate biological characteristics of the individual in the context of masculinity and femininity.

Transgender: All sexual orientations other than heterosexuality.

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