Parenting Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Parenting Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Dorothy Bhandari Deka (Sarvodaya Healthcare, India)
Copyright: © 2021 |Pages: 20
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5495-1.ch010
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Abstract

The prevalence of ADHD is estimated at 5–7% worldwide, which makes it one of the most common psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can become difficult if the child is not monitored using correct strategies and techniques. Parents play an integral role in shaping a child. Parenting involves biological as well as the legal aspects and other equally if not more important dimensions of care, protection, nurturance, understanding, guidance, mutual interaction, and partnership occurring within the protective environment of a family. Parenting a differently abled child is very demanding and challenging and the role of family and parents in caring for a child is very crucial, especially development, socializing, and protecting the child.
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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Adhd)

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by a brain difference and specific behavioural symptoms, is considered one of the most frequent and globally debilitating of childhood disorders (Barkley, 1981; Linden et.al., 1989, Amen et. al., 1993). The disorder was first described as a cluster of behavioural symptoms thatcomprisedof hyperactivity, poor attention; conduct disorders, and learning problems (Still, 1902). Earlier medication was used to treat thedisorder; it was labelled as Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) (Bradley, 1937). It is neurodevelopmental disorder categorised by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity that are present before the age of seven years, seen in a range of situations, inconsistent with the child’s developmental level and causing social or academic impairment (APA 1994).

According to International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) (WHO 1992), hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) is similar to ADHD but the criteria seems to be more restrictive. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V (DSM-5)has revised the diagnostic criteria for ADHD. To be identified with ADHD, the population needs to meet six out of nine possible inattentive symptoms and/or six out of nine possible hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Also, symptoms need to be present for at least 6 months, occur in at least two different settings, be present before 12 years of age, and not be better explained by another disorder.ADHD is often associated with extreme temperamental characteristics such as negative mood, short persistence, low frustration tolerance and excitability (Linden et.al., 1989). Other characteristics describing the disorder includes minimal brain damage syndrome, developmental hyperactivity, hyperkinetic impulse disorder, hyperkinetic reaction of childhood, attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Weiss &Hechtman, 1986).

According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnostic criteria for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are as follows:

  • A.

    A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity:

Inattention: Six (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is inconsistent with developmental level and that negatively impacts directly on social andacademic/occupational activities: (Note: The symptoms are not solely a manifestation of oppositional behavior, defiance, hostility, or failure to understand tasks or instructions. For older adolescents and adults (age 17 and older), at least five symptoms are required.)

  • Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities (e.g., overlooks or misses details, work is inaccurate).

  • Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities (e.g., has difficulty remaining focused during lectures, conversations, or lengthy reading).

  • Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly (e.g., mind seems elsewhere, even in the absence of any obvious distraction).

  • Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace (e.g., starts tasks but quickly loses focus and is easily side tracked).

  • Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities (e.g., difficulty managing sequential tasks; difficulty keeping materials and belongings in order; messy, disorganized work; has poor time management; fails to meet deadlines).

  • Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (e.g., schoolwork or homework; for older adolescents and adults, preparing reports, completing forms, reviewing lengthy papers).

  • Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g., school materials, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, mobile telephones).

  • Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli (for older adolescents and adults, may include unrelated thoughts).

  • Is often forgetful in daily activities (e.g., doing chores, running errands; for older adolescents and adults, returning calls, paying bills, keeping appointments).

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