Parkinson's Disease: A Progressive Disorder of the Nervous System That Affects Movement

Parkinson's Disease: A Progressive Disorder of the Nervous System That Affects Movement

Vaibhav Walia (Maharshi Dayanand University, India), Ashish Gakkhar (Maharshi Dayanand University, India) and Munish Garg (Maharshi Dayanand University, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5282-6.ch012
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder in which a progressive loss of the dopaminergic neurons occurs. The loss of the neurons is most prominent in the substantia nigra region of the brain. The prevalence of PD is much greater among the older patients suggesting the risk of PD increases with the increase of age. The exact cause of the neurodegeneration in PD is not known. In this chapter, the authors introduce PD, demonstrate its history, pathogenesis, neurobiology, sign and symptoms, diagnosis, and pharmacotherapy.
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SN region of the brain is rich in the dopamine containing neurons and the neuronal cell death in the SN region increases with the increase in the age and thus increased the risk of PD (Olanow & Tatton, 1999; Tanner, 2003). The death of the dopaminergic neurons in PD results in the development of the motor symptoms of the PD (Goldenberg et al, 2008). The exact mechanism of the neuronal cell death in PD is not known completely. Further it has been reported that besides SN region the neuronal cell death also occurs in the various other regions of the brain responsible for the complexity of the pathogenesis and the variety of the symptoms observed in the patients of the PD. However there are several therapeutics options are present for the pharmacotherapeutics of the PD patients but till date there is no suitable pharmacotherapeutic agent which can stop the neuronal degeneration in the PD. Further the complexity of the symptoms often makes the diagnosis and the therapeutics of the PD patients difficult. The present chapter demonstrates the history, genetics, neuronal degeneration, symptoms and the therapeutics of PD in details

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