Past Failure, New Future: An Analysis of the European Union Development Strategies – From Lisbon to Europe 2020

Past Failure, New Future: An Analysis of the European Union Development Strategies – From Lisbon to Europe 2020

Altuğ Günar (Istanbul University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-2245-4.ch015
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This chapter provides a broad analysis of the EU's development strategies from Lisbon to EU 2020. The purpose of the chapter is to make a comparison among development strategies of the EU and to reach the answer of the question; if EU 2020 will be a new future for the EU? For this aim, the author focuses on three questions: what is the connection between the globalization and the EU? Has the EU answered to the challenges of globalization or post Fordist transformation with Lisbon Strategy? Lisbon Strategy which was reformed two times was a failure, what were the reasons of launching the EU 2020 strategy? The first one is related to the economic transformation of the world and economic decline of the EU during the 1980 to 2000s. The second one is related to the EU's structural weakness. The third one is related to the future of the EU.
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The Eu In The Age Of Transformation

Globalization and the EU Relations in the 21st Century

In terms of the EU, the globalization can be defined as a process of “The combination of technological progress, lower transport costs and policy liberalization in the European Union and elsewhere has led to increasing trade and financial flows between countries” (European Commission, 2015). In addition to that globalization can be named in the term of the EU as a “managed”. In fact, the Pascal Lamy had firstly used the term of the “managed globalization”, whereas Lamy was a trade Commissioner of the EU. Generally, the term refers to the attempts of EU leaders “there is something European leaders can do” or European leaders can handle the threatening influence of the globalization while taking advances of the globalization (Jacoby, Meunier, 2010, p.301). In addition to that the authors suggested that the EU have five mechanism to control the globalization including “expanding policy scope, exercising regulatory influence, empowering international institutions, enlarging the territorial sphere of EU influence, redistributing the cost of globalization” (Jacoby, Meunier, 2010, pp.305-309).

In the light of this information, it can be claimed that the EU has been a shaper of the globalization. In fact, the EU has been accepted as a shield against the negative effect of the globalization, while it absorbs the positive effect. It can be considered as good evidence that the EU’s globalization shaping capacity has provided a protection to its own trade interests by setting the global production standards and influence of its existence in international organizations which are related to trade. Another evidence of the EU’s globalization shaping role is to control the mergers and acquisitions. In fact, the EU has restricted competence over its member states. Besides, the EU Commission is the only institution which has used the supranational competence over the member states. The EU Commission uses this mandate transferred from member states to the EU and the Commission uses this competence on the behalf of the member states. The Competition Policy including the anti-trust control and approval is the one of them (Heisenberg, 2006, p.30-31).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Kok Report: A report which was issued by the Wim Kok in 2005 to back on track of the Lisbon strategy.

EU 2020: A development strategy which was launched by the EU to overcome the 2008 economic crisis and transform the EU development smart, sustainable and inclusive.

Open Method of Coordination: A alternative method of the EU’s decision making mechanism which was introduced by the Amsterdam Treaty.

European Semester: A mechanism which was designed by the EU 2020 strategy to monitor the economic stability of the member states.

European Problem: A fact which revealed during the 2000s including low employment rate, labor utilization, R&D expenditures in Europe.

Paradigm Shift: A transformation which occurred during the 1980 from fordist production style to post-fordist production relation in the line of the global competition.

Lisbon Strategy: A development strategy which was implemented by the EU among 2000-2010.

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