Patent Information Quality to Stimulate Innovations

Patent Information Quality to Stimulate Innovations

Sérgio Maravilhas (Universidade Salvador, Brazil), Sérgio Goes Oliveira (Universidade Salvador, Brazil) and Paulo Melo (Universidade Salvador, Brazil)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6225-2.ch006

Abstract

Information, a tool to reduce uncertainty and develop knowledge in organizations, is an important aid in the decision-making process. There are several characteristics that describe the quality of information that will allow the analysis of its value. Quality information warrants us best results when competing with other organizations. Its value is related to the results that it will allow us to obtain, and it depends on the context. Patent information must be of high quality to permit the search and retrieval of the documents needed to solve a problem or stimulate new ideas and solutions. Old inventions can generate new ideas; technologies for one application can be introduced for a new domain and can be applied in ecologically sustainable solutions. The current high number of patent applications reduces the quality of patent information due to the time needed to filter and search for all the prior art available. Some standards, together with machine translation, have been set up to avoid this situation and improve the quality of the patent information retrieved by the interested public. A comprehensive survey of the relevant literature available made us aware that commercial databases supply some value-added information to help the researchers and improve the efficiency of the search queries. Some of these features could be applied by the national and international intellectual property offices.
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Introduction

We are experiencing some important changes in our era, and the truth is that information plays an important role in it. Information has become the basis of the production system instead of the materials produced in factories and this has changed our way of life at all levels. We witnessed the beginning of the production of information and knowledge in massive proportions with financial and economic interests (Drucker, 2000).

Some authors (Brown & Duguid, 2000; Castells, 2000; 2004; Webster, 2000) often talk about the knowledge and information based transformation of the world economy we are living in, with flux and flows of information gaining advantage to the exchange of goods (Godeluck, 2000).

Information, as a tool to reduce uncertainty and to develop knowledge in organizations (Best, 1996b; Kahaner, 1997; Porter & Millar, 1985) is an important aid in the decision-making process and must be of quality to improve its value (Best, 1996b; Beuren, 1998; Choo, 2003; Davenport, Marchand, & Dickson, 2004; Marchand & Horton Jr., 1986; Tapscott, 1999; Wilson, 1985; Wilson, 1987).

There are several characteristics that describe the quality of information that will allow the analysis of the value of the information used.

Quality information warrants us better results when competing with other organizations (Brophy & Coulling, 1996; Redman, 1996; Wormell, 1990) enabling the chance to get a competitive advantage.

Its value is related to the results that it will allow to obtain and it depends on the context (Best, 1996b; Davenport, 1997; Marchand & Horton Jr., 1986; Orna, 1999; Penzias, 1989; Tapscott, 1995).

Patent information, contained in patent documents, must be of high quality to permit the search and retrieval of the documents needed to solve a problem or stimulate new ideas and solutions (Albrecht, Bosma, van Dinter, Ernst, van Ginkel, & Versloot-Spoelstra, 2010; Brünger-Weilandt, Geiß, Herlan, & Stuike-Prill, 2011; Chakroun, 2012; Mueller & Nyfeler, 2011; Philipp, 2005; 2006; Scott, 2010).

Old inventions can generate new ideas (Adair, 2011; Jolly, 2003; Michalko, 1991; Petroski, 2008), inventions never marketed can become real products and satisfy needs and desires (Maia, 1996), inventions for one application can be introduced in a new domain (Buchanan, 2008; Ernst, 2003; Haberman, 2001; Koch, 1991) and technologies can be applied in ecological sustainable solutions to develop ‘green’ products (Dresner, 2008; Esty & Winston, 2008; Krupp & Horn, 2009).

Patent offices are acting to improve the quality of the patent applications and the patent information retrieved by the search queries performed by examiners, attorneys, inventors, scientists and entrepreneurs will have higher value-added.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Creativity: Reasoning that produces imaginative new ideas and new ways of looking at reality. Creativity is an individual process, arises from the idea that popped into someone’s head. Relates facts or ideas without previous relationship and is discontinuous and divergent. No creative process exists if there is no intention or purpose. The essence of the creative process is to seek new combinations.

Innovation: The application of new knowledge, resulting in new products, processes or services or significant improvements in some of its attributes. A new solution brought to the market to solve a problem in a new or better way than the existent solutions.

Invention: The creation or discovery of a new idea, including the concept, design, model creation or improvement of a particular piece, product or system. Even though an invention may allow a patent application, in most cases it will not give rise to an innovation.

Information: A set of data arranged in a certain order and form, useful to people to whom it is addressed. Reduces uncertainty and supports decision-making. Information is considered to support human knowledge and communication in the technical, economic and social domains. Results from the structuring of data in a given context and particular purpose.

Knowledge: Is a fluid composed of experiences, values, context information and apprehension about their own field of action that provides a cognitive apparatus for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates from data and information and allows acting upon it.

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