Peer Feedback Activities in Smart Education

Peer Feedback Activities in Smart Education

Copyright: © 2020 |Pages: 31
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-4183-8.ch005
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Abstract

New ways of communication and peer feedback activities provide several opportunities for student-centered collaborative learning in smart higher education. This chapter increases the knowledge about how collaborative peer feedback processes can support student-centered learning toward higher-order thinking and critical ability in smart higher education. Methodically, various types of feedback are illustrated based on review of selected articles from previous research. The qualitative empirical data of feedback processes (N=155) among 22 students was grounded on criteria and guidance on feedback for collaborative learning. Theoretically, the analysis of excerpts is based on a feedback model and an assessment cycle to identify the gap between the main process, self-regulated and self-directed actions, and the self as a person (i.e., what is understood and what is aimed to be understood). The results demonstrate that peer feedback provides one of the most critical and self-directed impacts on student-centered collaborative learning and higher-order thinking.
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Background

Peer feedback between students and feedback from teachers is one of the most important skills in teaching that improves students' collaborative learning and outcomes (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). In a broad sense the whole process is including how students receive and use the feedback for their reflecting back on their own work and future process, but also give other students concrete peer feedback. Thus, it is not just about the formal response-giving activity (Dysthe, Lillejord, Vines & Wasson, 2010), instead more knowledge that leads to greater opportunities for learning, improved challenges, more self-directed and self-regulated learning processes about what exists and what is not understood (Hattie & Timperley, 2007).

This chapter increases the knowledge about in what way collaborative peer feedback processes can be a tool for self-directed and motivated student-centered learning in a resource-enriched learning environment with technology-embedded tools in smart higher education. The following questions are addressed:

  • In what way can teachers a) design and b) use different feedback activities and wearable tools that are appropriate for student-centered learning and active participation?

  • How do the students experience the feedback activities and the wearable tools for their learning?

  • In what way can the feedback activities and tools be analyzed comparing to the students’ performance?

‘Smart learning’ refers to wisdom bounding together the ability of using and motivating self-directed learning, knowledge building, problem-solving, critically reflecting, collaborating and evaluating different circumstances with resource-enriched, and technology-embedded tools, as with written e-feedback or in face-to-face, F2F-webinars / conferencing in a mobile setting at distance (Hwang, 2014; Spector, 2014; Zhu, Yu & Riezebos, 2016).

Feedback ability is related to a dialogic interaction with responses to a specific written text, production or presentation in order for the recipient to become a more conscious writer, producer or presenter (Alvarez, Espasa, A. & Guasch, 2011). Specifically, makes feedback online (e-feedback) the interaction process transparent for students and teachers, as well as acts as a mediated artifact or a tool for the joint activities between the groups of students. Another practical benefit of implementing peer feedback between students is that the feedback becomes available faster during the course, and that more strengths and weaknesses, or alternative strategies for improvement are available earlier than the teachers could ever provide alone (van der Pol, van den Berg & Admiraal, 2008). Moreover, peer feedback can also help students to understand the work in another way, thus, perceive peer feedback as more useful and understandable, than teachers’ feedback due to a more available language (Nicol, Thomson & Breslin, 2014). The feedback process can either be done face-to-face, F2F on campus or technology embedded as written e-feedback or in oral F2F-webinars / conferencing in a mobile setting at distance (Amhag, 2013b).

The term assessment feedback or peer assessment is used in research as an umbrella concept with a set of activities for formative or summative purposes in which students comment on the quality of their fellow students’ work and have feedback exchanges about conceptual understandings, communication and self-assessment skills, generally between students in the same course (Dochy, Segers, & Sluijsmans, 1999; Evans, 2013; Topping, 1998). Collaborative peer feedback is defined as a joint activity that requires interactions between actively participating students and teachers (Dysthe et al., 2010). Formative feedback is defined as conceptualized information in terms of feed-up, feed-back and feed-forward, provided by an agent for self-directed learning e.g. by teacher, peer, book, parent or self, regarding different aspects of one's work (Hattie & Timperley, 2007, p. 81). A teacher usually provides corrective directions, a peer can ask questions and suggest an alternative solution, a book has facts and information about concepts and theories, a parent can provide encouragement and motivation, and the self can value and reflect over the feedback.

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