Perioperative Respiratory Care and Complications

Perioperative Respiratory Care and Complications

Peter Burrage (Harvard Medical School, USA), Zinaida Wadhwani (Kaiser Permanente, USA) and Michael Nurok (Cedars Sinai Heart Institute, USA)
Copyright: © 2015 |Pages: 45
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-8603-8.ch015
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Abstract

Clinicians caring for patients with cardio-pulmonary disease invariably must manage the respiratory system. Doing so requires a basic understanding of physiology and the interaction of the heart and lung. The present chapter begins with rudimentary concepts of respiratory physiology, focusing on, gas exchange, pulmonary mechanics, and cardio-pulmonary interactions. These are used to develop an approach to mechanical ventilation and routine perioperative respiratory care of the patient having undergone a cardio-pulmonary procedure. The final section of this chapter addresses specific respiratory challenges encountered in caring for the critically ill cardiothoracic patient in addition to contemporary management strategies.
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Background

The respiratory system’s primary function is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in support of metabolism. This is achieved by approximating blood and air over a large surface area. The heart and lungs move blood and air, permitting exchange of gas between alveoli, pulmonary capillaries, tissue, and eventually cells.

The respiratory system is made of two components, the lung and chest wall. Airways smaller than respiratory bronchioles contain alveoli that function as gas exchanging units. The chest wall includes the rib cage, abdomen, and diaphragm. Parietal and visceral pleura separate the chest wall from the lung with a potential pleural space between.

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