Pesticide Analysis Techniques, Limitations, and Applications

Pesticide Analysis Techniques, Limitations, and Applications

Ebru Kafkas (University of Cukurova, Turkey), Nebile Daglioglu (University of Cukurova, Turkey), Nigar Yarpuz-Bozdogan (University of Cukurova, Turkey) and Mozhgan Zarifikhosroshahi (University of Cukurova, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-6111-8.ch017

Abstract

Natural or synthetic chemical compounds in pesticides are commonly used to kill pests or weeds. In general, pesticides are potentially toxic to not only organisms but also the environment and should be used safely disposed of expediently. Pesticide residues in foods may cause various crucial diseases in the body. The damage of pesticides can be changed depending on the application dose or type of active compounds. For this reason, identification and quantification of pesticides via highly selective, sensitive, accurate, and renewable techniques are of vital importance due to the large amounts of possible interfering substances during the extraction stages. Analysis of pesticide residues by analytical methods can be fluctuate based on the pesticide types. For food and health safety, maximum residue limits (MRL) of pesticides in foods were determined by the European Community. There are many analytical methods developed for identification and quantification of pesticides. Although there are some limitations, the multi-residue methods sensible for analyzing a great number of pesticides in one single run is the fastest, the most favorite, and efficient choice. However, some of the pesticides need specific methodologies and single-residue methods apply as compulsory for them. In this chapter, recent advances in the various analysis of pesticide residues in crops and their applications and limitations are discussed.
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Introduction

Pesticides are generally used for obtaining high quality and yield of agricultural crops by farmers. They can prevent agricultural crops from quality and quantity losses. Pesticides are chemicals and widely used all over the world for many years. Known as an essential nutrient for plants, sulfur was the oldest pesticide that kills insects, mites, fungi, and rodents. Until the 1940s, chemicals which were derived from plants and inorganic compounds were used for pest control (Fishel, 2009). Then chemicals including plant growth regulators and synthetic substances started to be used for plant protection. However, most of the chemicals are poisonous to the environment and living organisms. These chemicals can be classified on the basis of their use for insect killers as insecticides, weed killers as herbicides, fungi killers as fungicides, rodent killers as rodenticides, etc. (Aktar et al., 2009). Classification of pesticides are given in Table 1 (Jayaraj et al., 2016)

Table 1.
Classification of pesticides
Chemical GroupChemical Names
OrganochlorinesDDT,DDD, Dicofol, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Chlorobenziate, Lindane, BHC, Methoxychloroaldrin, Chlordane, Heptaclor, Endosufan, Isodrin, Isobenzan, Toxaphene.
OrganophosphatesDimefox, Mipafox, methyl parathion, Ronnel, enitrothion, Bidrin, Phorate, Fenthion, caumphos, Abate, Dichlorovas, Diptrex, Phosphomidon, Demetox, Oxydemeton-methyl, Malathion, Dimethoate, Trichlorofan
CarbamatesMethyl: Carbaryl, Carbanolate, Prupoxur, Dimethan, Dimetilan, Isolan, Carbofuran, Pyrolan, Aminocarb, Aldicarb
Thio: Vernolate, Pebulate, Diallate, Monilate, Butylate, Cycloate, Trillate, Thiourea
Dithio: Methan, Thiram, Ferban, Amoban, Naban, Zineb, Maneb, Zirampolyran, Dithane M- 45
PyrethroidsAllethrin, Bonthrin, Dimethrin, Tetramethrin, Ptrethrin, Cyclethrin, Furethrin, Fenevelerate, Alphamethrin, Decamethrin, Cypermethrin
PhenylamidesCarbanilates: Barban, Carbetamide, Chlororprofan, Prophan, Phenylurea, Fenuron, Monuron, Diuron, Flumeturon, Chloroxuron, Neburon, Bromuron.
Acylanalide: Propanil, Solan, Dicryl, Karsil, Propachlor, Alachlor, Butachlor.
Toluidines: Trifluralin, Dipropanil, Benefin, Oryzalin, Isopropanil, Nitralin.
Acetamide: Diphenamid
Phenoxyalkonates2,4-D(2,4 Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid), 2,4 5 T(2,4 5 Trichlorophenoxyaceticacid), Dichloroprop, Mecoprop, Erbin, Sesone
TrazinesAtrazine, Simazine, Ametryn, Atratone, Chlorazine, Cynazine, Cyprazine, Metribuzin, Propazine, Turbutryn, Simetryn
BenzoicacidDicamba, Dichlorobenil, Chloroambin, Tricamba, Neptalan, Bromoxynil
PhtalimidesCaptan, Diflotan, Folpet
DipyridsParaquat, Diaquat
OthersPentachlorophenol, Floroacetate, Phenylmercuricacetate, Ethylmercuricphosphate, Methylmercuricchloride, Sodiumarsenate, Calciumarsenate, Leadarsenate, Cacodylicacid, Aluminiumphosphide, Zincphosphide

Jayaraj et al., 2016.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Biomonitoring: Biological monitoring, or biomonitoring, is the use of biological responses to assess changes in the environment, generally changes due to anthropogenic causes. In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites in biological substances. Biomonitoring programs may be qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative.

Solid-Phase Microextraction: Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is an innovative, solvent-free sample prep technology that is fast, economical, and versatile. SPME uses a fiber coated with a liquid (polymer), a solid (sorbent), or a combination of both. The fiber coating extracts the compounds from your sample by absorption in the case of liquid coatings or absorption in the case of solid coatings. The SPME fiber is then inserted directly into the chromatograph for desorption and analysis. SPME has gained widespread acceptance as the technique of preference for many applications including flavors and fragrances, forensics and toxicology, environmental and biological matrices, and product testing to name a few.

Forensic Toxicology: Forensic toxicology deals with the investigation of toxic substances, environmental chemicals, or poisonous products. In other words, forensic toxicology is the use of toxicology and other disciplines such as analytical chemistry, pharmacology, and clinical chemistry to aid medical or legal investigation of the death, poisoning, and drug use. It also shares ties with some of the environmental sciences.

Chromatography: Chromatography is a laboratory technique to separate the components of a mixture. The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase. Mobile phase carries the mixture through a stationary phase called column. The components are separated based on their molecular weight. Generally, in the analytical analysis, there are two kinds of chromatography, liquid chromatography and gas chromatography.

Pesticide: Pesticides are chemical compounds that are used to kill or control pests, including insects, rodents, fungi, and unwanted plants (weeds). Pesticides are used in public health to kill vectors of disease, such as mosquitoes, and in agriculture to kill pests that damage crops. By their nature, pesticides are potentially toxic to other organisms, including humans, and need to be used safely and disposed of properly.

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