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S. C. Kaushik (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India), Ravita Lamba (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India) and S. K. Tyagi (Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India)

Copyright: © 2018
|Pages: 54

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3935-3.ch012

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Top*A*Area (m_{0}:^{2})*N*Effective density of states in conduction band (# per cm_{C}:^{3})*c:*Speed of light (m/s)*n*Diode ideality factor_{id}:*E*Energy band gap of semiconductor (eV)_{g}:*N*Effective density of states in valence band (# per cm_{V}:^{3})*E*Energy band gap of semiconductor material used in solar cell (eV)_{g,PV}:*N*Electron concentration for ionized acceptor (# per cm_{A:}^{3})*E*Quasi-Fermi levels for valence band (eV)_{F,p}:*N*Concentration of p-type acceptor (# per cm_{A:}^{3})*E*Quasi-Fermi levels for conduction band (eV)_{F,n}:*n*Equilibrium electron concentration without photo-excitation (# per cm_{eq}:^{3})*E*Equilibrium Fermi level (eV)_{F:}*n:*Electron concentration with photo-excitation (# per cm^{3})*E*Ionization energy of p-type acceptor (eV)_{A:}*δn:*Excess carrier concentration from equilibrium condition (# per cm^{3})*E*Conduction band minimum energy level (eV)_{C:}*P:*Holes concentration with photo-excitation (# per cm^{3})*E*Valence band maximum energy level (eV)_{V:}*p*Equilibrium hole concentration without photo-excitation (# per cm_{eq}:^{3})*Ex:*Exergy (W)*P:*Power (W)*En:*Energy (W)*Q:*Energy (W)*G:*Solar irradiation (W/m^{2})*R*Rate of photon emission at equilibrium conditions (# per m_{0:}^{2}per sec)*H:*Cathode height (cm)*R:*Rate of photon emission at non-equilibrium conditions (# per m^{2}per sec)*H:*Planck constant (J-s)*R*Rate of photon-enhanced recombination at non-equilibrium conditions (# per m_{r:}^{2}per sec)*I*Reverse saturation current (A)_{0}:*R*Rate of thermionic emission in cathode (# per m_{C:}^{2}per sec)*Irr:*Irreversibilities (W)*R*Rate of reverse thermionic emission from anode (# per m_{A}:^{2}per sec)*I*Photocurrent (A)_{ph}:*R*Rate of photon induced electrons (# per m_{S}:^{2}per sec)*I:*Electrical current (A)*R:*Resistance (Ω)*J:*Current density (A/cm^{2})*S:*Entropy (W/K)*K*Richardson Dushmann constant (A/cm_{RD}:^{2}K^{2})*s*Aspect ratio_{r}:*k*Boltzmann constant (J/K)_{B}:*T:*Temperature (K)*m*Electron mass (9.1x10_{0}:^{-31}kg)*U:*Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m^{2}K)*m*Effective electron mass (kg)_{n}:*V:*Voltage (V)*m*Effective hole mass (kg)_{p}:*W:*Width (m/cm)

Work Function: It is defined as the minimum amount of thermodynamic work or energy required to remove an electron from a solid to a point in the vacuum immediately outside the solid surface.

Mobility: It is the characteristic of an electron to move through a metal or semiconductor upon application of electric field.

Ionization Energy: It is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of an atom.

Absorption Coefficient: It describes how far the light of a particular wavelength can penetrate into a material of a given thickness before it is absorbed by the material.

Current Density: The amount of electric current travelling per unit cross-section area is called as current density.

Electron Affinity: Electron affinity of a semiconductor is the minimum energy required to move an electron from the conduction band bottom to the vacuum level.

Radiative Recombination: When an electron from the conduction band directly combines with a hole in the valence band and releases a photon, it is called radiative recombination.

Carnot Efficiency: It describes the maximum thermal efficiency that a heat engine can achieve as permitted by the second law of thermodynamics.

Vacuum Level: It is the energy of a free electron (an electron outside the semiconductor) which is at rest with respect to the semiconductor.

Diffusion Length: It is the average distance that a carrier covers between generation and recombination.

Fermi Level: the energy level (if it exists) which has a 50% probability of getting occupied by an electron for the given temperature of the solid and at absolute zero temperature occupancy is 100%.

Energy Band Gap: It is defined as the minimum energy required to excite an electron up to a state in the conduction band where it can participate in conduction.

Photon: A photon is the quantum of electromagnetic radiation. A photon is a particle of light defined as a discrete bundle or quantum of electromagnetic radiation or light.

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