Phytormediation Efficiency Increased by Using Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and Chelates

Phytormediation Efficiency Increased by Using Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) and Chelates

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-9016-3.ch007

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors give information about the plant-growth-promoting bacteria and chelating agents removing high number of contaminants with the help of phytoremdiation technology. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first chapter about heavy metal contamination in groundwater and soil removing by microbes and chelates.
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Physical Remediation

Physically remediation is the enhancement process for soil without addition of any other compounds such as ‘chemicals. This method is useful for minute contaminated soil and done by surrogating contaminated soil and by thermal desorption method. The replacement of polluted soil aims to reduce the concentration of a pollutant in a particular area and to the improve soil quality by physical remediation method (Zhang et al., 2004). The soil replacement is divided into three steps: replacement, importing, spading. In soil replacement method, the polluted rhizosphere is replaced by new soil, applicable only in a very small area; new soil should be treated properly for remediation. In soil spading (the area of unhygienic soil is dug deeply and the noxious wastes) are spread completely into the subterranean sites to achieve dilution and natural remediation process. A great deal of clean and pure soil is imported and mixed properly into the polluted soil to cover it completely and the concentration of pollution is ultimately reduced. However this method have a large functioning capacity to remove contaminants, second one is cost deal method; suitable for small area pollution (Zhou et al., 2004). Heavy metal can be removed from the surface and remain in a very minute amount for thermal desorption which is based on the instability of noxious wastes. Thermal desorption can be further classified into high temperature desorption range from 320 to 560 °C, and low temperature from 90 to 320 °C. This is an advantageous technique is simple procedure for tools can be transferred from one place to another and the remediation soil can be reused is most significantly. This method was carried out in United States as a measure of in situ remediation, limiting facts such as high cost long process duration; so restricted its uses for soil remediation (Aresta et al., 2008). A field experiment was conducted in West Bengal India for As remediation reactor provides hope for the removal of As along the temperature from w 266 to <5mg/L in real groundwater at a low cost amount. The new technology applied for remediation was nanotechnology also opens opportunities in the form of magnetic nanoadsorbents for the removal of Cd from the environment (Sharma et al., 2014).

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