Polyaniline as Proficient Electrode Material for Supercapacitor Applications: PANI Nanocomposites for Supercapacitor Applications

Polyaniline as Proficient Electrode Material for Supercapacitor Applications: PANI Nanocomposites for Supercapacitor Applications

Dipanwita Majumdar (Chandernagore College, India)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7838-3.ch007

Abstract

Sky-high renewable energy demands urged the revolutionary development of environment benign, portable and miniatured, high power generating energy storage systems in the form of electrochemical capacitors commonly known as “supercapacitors” or “ultracapacitors”. Supercapacitor designing requires smart electrode materials for providing higher energy and power densities, mechanical and electrochemical durability, enhanced thermal operating range with minimal production and maintenance cost. Polyaniline, as conducting polymer, particularly in nano-morphology, has been one of the pioneer electroactive materials paving the corridor for commercial development of pseudocapacitors. Considering these points, the chapter initially concentrates on basic concepts of fabrication, designing and performance evaluation procedure of supercapacitors, followed by discussion on the role of PANI as potential supercapacitor electrode material, delineating current achievements and major challenges encountered in the process of progress so as to obtain superior electrochemical energy storage systems in the near future.
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Introduction

Aim of Supercapacitors

Ever mounting energy needs, increasing environmental pollution and depleting of conventional energy resources, have urged the progress of renewable, sustainable energy production with environmental benign systems for the last three decades. Great efforts have been committed in developing rechargeable, secondary batteries so as to be able to store energy for autonomy purposes (Yoo, Markevich & Salitra, 2014) (Tarascon & Armand, 2001). However, to cope up with the sky-high demands for portable-miniatured electronics systems and hybrid-electric vehicles, short-pulsed-high power requirements have ideally motivated the current research on electrochemical capacitors (Burke, 2000). The electrochemical capacitors, more famously recognized as supercapacitors or “supercaps” or ultracapacitors, are observed to display longer cycle, faster charging/discharging rate with appreciable energy and power densities along with low maintenance cost. However, energy densities of current supercapacitors are very unsatisfactory compared to secondary batteries (Kotz & Carlen, 2000). So, present research concentrates on improving the limitations of the supercapacitors preserving all its advantages to full extent. Some of the points of superiority of the supercapacitors over secondary batteries are well reflected in the following comparative study as depicted in Table-1: Comparison of Supercapacitors with Secondary Batteries (Chu and Braatz, 2002).

Table 1.
Comparison of supercapacitors with secondary batteries
Available PerformancesSupercapacitorsSecondary Batteries
Cost of productionLower cost per cycleHigher cost per cycle
Number of Charging/ Discharging cyclesHighlow
Heat build-up during GCD charging/discharging cyclesLow thermal energy released with maximum GCD efficiencySerious heating up
Charge protectionNo danger of overchargingShut-off circuits needed to detect full-charge
Environmental issuesNo corrosive chemicalsChemicals needed to be dispose of safely.
Maximum possible voltageLow valued. Need to combine in series but that leads to increasing internal resistance.Maximum voltage obtained with straightforward series combinations.
Energy densityHigher than all trivial capacitorsSuperior in energy storage
Power density (rate of energy discharge)Very high rate of energy dischargeLower rate of energy discharge
Operating temperature-40°C to 65°C, more effective in low temperature regions-20 °C to 100 °C
Operational lifehigh Longevityhigh Longevity

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