Predict Energy Charging Points to Electric Vehicles in a Smart City Using a Novel Metaheuristic

Predict Energy Charging Points to Electric Vehicles in a Smart City Using a Novel Metaheuristic

Daniel Rivera-Rojo (Autonomous University of Juarez City, Mexico), Carlos Martinez (Autonomous University of Juarez City, Mexico), Diego Almazo (Autonomous University of Juarez City, Mexico), Uzziel Caldiño (Autonomous University of Juarez City, Mexico), Abdiel Ramirez (Autonomous University of Juarez City, Mexico) and Valdemar Tejeda (INEEL, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-8131-4.ch023

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to understand a multivariable optimization associated with the path of a group of vehicles integrated in an ecological community and determine the optimal route involve speed, storage, and travel resources. Time of charge for determining the cost benefit have partnered with a travel plan associated with the charge point in a smart city, which has as principal basis the orography restriction related with the energy consumed. Although this problem has been studied on several occasions, the literature failed to establish ubiquitous computing for interacting with the various values associated with the achievement of the group of vehicles and their cost-benefit of each member of the community, comparing their individual trips for the group and determining the quantity of energy required for each one. There are several factors that can influence in the achievement of a group trip. For this chapter, the authors propose to use bat algorithm, which has proven to be efficient for the convergence of several issues.
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Introduction

With the increase of the electric vehicles in the Smart City it is of utmost importance to realize an Intelligent Models that determine the proper location of loaders for this type of vehicles in the city. Modern versions of Electrical Vehicles (EV) have the same function, but are conditioned to adapt to different orography and the duration of the battery that must condition to its continuous use. These can serve a variety of different purposes, and can be adapted to the needs of most travelers one way or another.

Figure 1.

An Standard Electrical Vehicle associated with users in a Smart City

978-1-5225-8131-4.ch023.f01

The ways in which this space can be used depend on the type of journey that is planned, with whom and for how long; in this research we try to optimize a standard model which requires minimum eight hours of duration as in Figure 1. With the search to optimize the efficiency of an electric car it is important to determine its operation, since it uses an electric motor, which propels the car, thanks to the current generated by a battery, most of these batteries are of the Ion-Lithium type, due to its high energy capacity and the lack of memory effect in them (effect in which when recharging a battery, it loses a certain part of its capacity to store energy), its capacity depends on several factors, however most of the companies have units ranging from 100 km to 200 km range, Tesla, one of the companies with the most fame in this branch has developed vehicles that exceed these reaches reaching up to 400km range, however these are also part of the more expensive, so it could be said that they are focused on a certain market with greater purchasing power, these measurements are given by the same manufacturing companies of said products, the 100 km range are actually a good performance, since in static state only consume the energy of the lights and other complementary systems such as heating, so for example a car of 160km range, could travel 4 hours at 40km / h, although this time may decrease due to different conditions such as the external climate and the topography of the streets, however in the latter case, the cars are designed to recover the energy of a slope by lowering it, since it would be necessary to reduce the speed to down, the brakes are designed to take advantage of that braking as kinetic and calorific energy and turn it back into electric thanks that the electric motor works at the same time as a generator. The most obvious use of charger on Electrical Vehicles is the duration time and a relevant aspect is the storage space related with this kind of vehicles. This is useful when moving around the city or even for shorter distances as they are as a storage model and can optimize the time of duration of each charge in addition with the space associated with each element of the charge. These can be equipped with storage racks or cabinet space that will help you organize all the equipment and supplies needed for a day of rest and associated with a long distance journey. When buying a trailer in particular should have a list of what items to fit inside it, if this will be the main purpose of its use. Furthermore, the trailer is enough as living space. Despite that connects to car or other vehicle, which can be disengaged in campgrounds or elsewhere whether towns or in the countryside. In addition, it can be used as a living room and bedrooms, with the addition of some furniture or other sleeping materials. It is very useful for long-term travel when road, and saves the cost of accommodation along the route, making it one of the most popular uses. Routing problems vehicle (Vehicle Routing Problem - VRP) are actually a broad range of variants and customizations problems. From those that is simplest to some that remain today research as in (Dariusz Barbucha, 2013). They generally were trying to figure out the routes of a transportation fleet to service a customer. This type of problem belongs to the combinatorial optimization problems. In the scientific literature, Dantzig and Ramser were the first authors in 1959, when they studied the actual application in the distribution of gasoline for fuel stations.

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