Primary School Teachers' Perceived Factors Affecting the Integration of ICT in an Educational District

Primary School Teachers' Perceived Factors Affecting the Integration of ICT in an Educational District

Leesha Nicole Roberts
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-5557-6.ch005
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Abstract

This study examined whether there was a link between school context, teachers' knowledge, mastery of ICT, and the factors perceived by teachers during the integration of ICT in their classrooms. One hundred teachers at the early childhood and middle school levels, in the Port-of-Spain and Environs School District, Trinidad and Tobago, participated in this study. The data was analyzed using SPSS, Version 22 Software. The results, using 1-way ANOVA, revealed no significant differences between the main factors (p = 5%) as perceived by teachers, hindering the use and integration of ICT into their lessons: insufficient instructional support [F (6, 88) = 0.45, p =0.0843]; inadequate hardware and software support [F (6, 88) = 0.47, p = 0.0830]; ICT literacy restrictions [F (6, 88) = 1.13, p = 0.350]; and limited leadership at the level of the school [F (6, 88) = 0.86, p = 0.529]. Despite these results, teachers continue to perceive these factors as hindrances to the integration of ICT in the teaching/learning process, which could have implications for ICT integration decision making in schools.
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Introduction

The discourse on the use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Education continues to be debated because many countries are still grappling with the attainment of long-term ICT integration sustainability. Worldwide some education systems chose to create independent departments to ensure ICT is systematically integrated into classrooms using a specific framework. For example, The British Educational Communications and Technology Agency (BECTA) Model is one of the seminal cases countries use when attempting to establish a sustainable ICT integration presence within classrooms (Trucano & Dykes, 2017). This research forms part of a more extensive Mixed Method study that explored the use of a specific framework for the integration of ICT in the primary school classrooms within a district in Trinidad and Tobago. Specifically, the focus of this chapter is on the factors that teachers perceive affected the integration of ICTs in the classroom, which was the first phase of the study. For this chapter, the term “ICT integration” is defined as the process of ensuring ICTs tools (hardware and software) are a fundamental part of a teachers’ instructional planning and practice within teaching to enhance student learning in the classroom.

Key Terms in this Chapter

ICT Literacy Restrictions: The ICT skills competency among the teaching faculty and the student cohort within a school that prevents the effective use of ICT within the classroom.

Ministry of Education: Is a government organization responsible for all education related matters within Trinidad and Tobago.

Knowledge Society: Refers to a country or a society focused on creating prosperity through the use of economic and societal standing globally.

Government-Assisted School: This type of school is a public school that is managed by a Board of Management. The school board receives public funds for the management and upkeep of the equipment and facilities for the school. This type of school was conceived during colonialism and is still present today within Trinidad and Tobago.

School Leadership: This refers to the process of promoting and guiding the integration of ICTs within the school environment from the principal, opinion leaders, teachers, and students at the school. For instance, the principal of a school may decide to implement weekly professional development sessions that allow teachers to engage in ICT integration strategies they can use in the classrooms.

Instructional Support: Is the access to resources that support the teaching and learning process within the school. This support ranges from government issued resources, access to educational materials, human resources, examination guidance, and standardized teaching methods.

Pedagogy: A combination of teaching content, strategies, and resources a teacher can utilize to share learning experiences within an educational setting.

Hardware and Software Support: Teachers access to ICT related tools such as computers and computer-related equipment within the school, such as desktop computers, laptops, and the internet.

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