Processing and Communication Techniques for Applications in Parkinson Disease Treatment

Processing and Communication Techniques for Applications in Parkinson Disease Treatment

Álvaro Orozco-Gutiérrez, Edilson Delgado-Trejos, Hans Carmona-Villada, Germán Castellanos-Domínguez
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-61520-670-4.ch009
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This chapter deals with processing and communication techniques for Parkinson’s disease treatment applications. First, the authors summarize the background of physiological dynamics related to degenerative disorders of the central nervous system and common clinical procedures using microelectrode recordings (MER) for detecting brain areas. This summary is followed by a discussion of different aspects related to the inclusion of a communication platform for specialized assistance by expert neurologists to remote hospitals. Next, the authors present different techniques derived from biomedical signal processing for analyzing non-stationary and complexity components, with the aim of developing an automatic recognition system that will support computer-based clinical decisions in detecting brain areas. In addition, they explain each component of medical teleconsult. Finally, they discuss the whole integrated system, including the advantages, limitations and viability of this clinical procedure based on modern technology resources.
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Parkinson’S Disease: Treatment And Surgical Procedure

The basal ganglia are part of a comprehensive cortico-basal- thalamic-cortical brain circuit and they are anatomically and functionally separated in parallel.

Normal Physiology

In the most accepted model, the neurons of the GPI (Globus Pallidus Internus) and NS (Substantia Nigra) have a pattern of similar high-tone discharges. The activation of the direct path causes the inhibition of GPI and NS, which translates into thalamic desinhibition, providing the excitation for the thalamic motor pre-central areas. The effect of this is a positive feedback for the initiated crustal movement. Indirect activation produces the inhibition of GPE (Globus Pallidus external) and second facilitation of SN (Subthalamic Nucleus), which sends excitatory impulses toward GPI / NS and inhibition of the thalamus and brain stem occurs. The end effect of this route is a negative feedback for the movement (inhibition of unwanted movements or as a signal to stop moving). Dopamine modulates the effects of glutamatergic projections from the cortex, which exerts a dual effect on striatal neurons: D1 excites on the direct track and by inhibiting D2 in the indirect track.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Telepathology: It is the interaction between signals (1D or 2D) and clinical reports where the primary diagnosis is given by a doctor in a remote location.

MER Signals: Micro-Electrode Recordings for detecting brain areas.

Teleconsult: It is the interaction between signals and medical records where the primary diagnosis is given by the doctor at the medical center. The purpose of a teleconsult is to provide a second opinion by a specialist to either confirm the diagnosis or to help the local doctor make a correct diagnosis.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS): It is currently the preferred surgical procedure for treating Parkinson’s disease, where the area that can be stimulated varies according to the criteria described above in the thalamus and the globus pallidus in the subthalamic nucleus.

Telesupervision: Telecommunication with fast, live voice, image and patients’ data transmission, without a compromise in quality, offers a unique possibility of bringing medical authorities together in a virtual space.

Non-Stationary Signals: It is quite common in bio-medical time series (and elsewhere) that otherwise harmless looking data once in a while are interrupted by a singular event, for example a spike. It is now debatable whether such spikes can be generated by a linear process by nonlinear rescaling.

Parkinson’s Disease: It is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs a person’s motor skills and speech.

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