Professional Training in Tourism for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Professional Training in Tourism for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

Rosa María Rivas García (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico) and Jésica Alhelí Cortés Ruiz (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mexico)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1875-5.ch004

Abstract

At present, the World Tourism Organization indicates that, as a worldwide export category, tourism occupies the third position, behind chemical and fuel products and ahead of the automotive industry. In many developing countries, tourism is the main export sector. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to propose an approach to the training of tourism professionals for the fourth industrial revolution, so this chapter proposes an approach to educational competencies in the training of tourism professionals for Industry 4.0 with a focus in sustainable development; initially, the subject of educational competencies in higher education will be described, since derived from these, professional competencies are achieved. Next, the exploration of the concepts of intellectual capital, tourism, and the fourth industrial revolution will be shown; to conclude the authors show the relation of the thematic axes.
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Educational Competence In Higher Education

First, the concept of educational competencies will be addressed; Due to the polysemic nature of the word “competence”, this content describes the concept - Expertise, aptitude, suitability to do something or intervene in a specific matter. Because the Royal Spanish Academy (2018), considers different meanings for the word in question.

competition1

From lat. competentia; cf. to compete.

  • 1.

    f. Dispute or contest between two or more people about something.

  • 2.

    f. Opposition or rivalry between two or more people who aspire to obtain the same thing.

  • 3.

    f. Situation of companies that compete in a market offering or demanding the same product or service.

  • 4.

    f. Rival person or group The competition has been passed.

  • 5.

    f. Am. Sports competition.

competition2

From lat. competentia; cf. competent.

  • 1.

    f. incumbency.

  • 2.

    f. Expertise, aptitude or suitability to do something or intervene in a specific matter.

  • 3.

    f. Legal scope of powers that correspond to a public entity or to a judicial or administrative authority.

Next, a review of the conceptual contributions of the topic educational competences; defined by various authors.

According to McClelland (1973). The competences are linked to a way of evaluating what “really causes a superior performance at work”, and not “to the evaluation of the factors that reliably describe all the characteristics of a person, in the hope that some are associated with work performance”.

Chomsky (1985), based on language theories, establishes the concept and defines competencies such as capacity and disposition for performance and interpretation.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Tourism: A social, cultural, and economic phenomenon related to the movement of people to the places that are outside their usual location of residence for personal or business/professional reasons. While these people are called visitors (which may be tourists or excursionists; residents or non-residents), tourism is associated with the people's activities and, therefore, implies tourism expenditure.

Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0: Emerged in Germany in 2011, to refer to a government economic policy based on high-tech strategies; characterized by automation, the digitalization of processes and the use of electronics and information technologies in manufacturing. Also, for the personalization of production, the provision of services and the creation of value-added businesses. And, for the capabilities of interaction and the exchange of information between humans and machines.

UNWTO: The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) is the United Nations agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism.

Professional Competence: The degree of utilization of knowledge, skills and the good judgment related to the people's profession, and in correspondence with all the situations that can be lived in the exercise of professional practice.

Intellectual Capital: Set of intangible assets based on knowledge and access to the evolution of resources in a system of value creation, through the achievement of sustainable competitive advantages.

Tourism Industry: The term tourism industries include the factory complexes that regularly produce tourism products; and is one of the most colloquial terms used in the tourism sector.

Educational Competence: Complex development processes which are suitable in contexts, by integrating different knowledge (knowing how to be, knowing how to do, knowing to know, knowing to live with), in order to do activities and / or solve problems with a sense of challenge, motivation, flexibility, creativity, understanding and undertaking, within an approach of meta-cognitive thinking, ongoing improvement and ethical commitment, which are aimed at contributing to personal development, the construction and strengthening of social networking, the continuous search of a sustainable economic and business development, and the care and protection of the environment and the living organisms.

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