Progress and Development of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Technologies in Tourism: A Review of Publications From 2000 to 2018

Progress and Development of Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Technologies in Tourism: A Review of Publications From 2000 to 2018

Evrim Çeltek (Gaziosmanpaşa University, Turkey)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1989-9.ch001
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Abstract

Progress and development of tourism technologies and applications available through smart devices provide an increasing diversity in tourism marketing. Augmented reality, virtual reality applications with the smart technologies, which are considered as new marketing communication instruments, increase awareness and help in terms of getting information about tourists and giving information to the tourist. Thus, this chapter provides an assessment regarding the progress of AR and VR researches published in hospitality and tourism journals. In particular, the chapter determines the current fields, topics, and research methods of AR and VR articles published in 32 hospitality and tourism research journals between 2000-2018, comparing the subjects and research methods of 32 journals and discussing the changes in topic areas throughout the years, to offer suggestions for further research on AR and VR for hospitality and tourism journals.
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Introduction

Progress and development of tourism technologies, applications obtainable through smart devices provide an improving diversity in promotion of tourism. Marketers have developed additional inventive practices to draw in customers in the last decade. These new promoting tools are virtual reality, augmented reality, applications with the smart technologies, which are thought as new promoting communication instruments, increase awareness and help in terms of getting info regarding the tourist and giving info to the tourist.

This chapter aims at examining the development and progress of augmented and virtual reality technologies in articles printed in hospitality and tourism journals between 2000 and 2018. This chapter reviews articles published in last eighteen years. Using a wide range of sources, primarily in tourism literature, it comprehensively reviews and analyses previous studies within the context of AR and VR applications in tourism. The paper additionally projects future developments in AR and VR, and demonstrates essential changes which will probably influence the structure of tourism industry. A significant contribution of the paper is its summary of the research and development efforts that have been endeavored within the field, and therefore the challenges tourism researchers are, and can be, facing. The article reports on a study that analyzed the published AR and VR papers in thirty two research journals in tourism, and examined the trend of AR and VR research based on the publications excluding book reviews, research notes, reports, commentaries, and case studies. The research topics and methods and industry sectors of the chosen articles were analyzed and discussed through content analysis. The majority AR and VR related publications in tourism and hospitality journals were searched and compiled from three online databases. The research topics and methods and industry sectors of the selected articles were analyzed and discussed through content analysis. Almost all AR and VR related publications in tourism and hospitality journals were searched and compiled from three online databases. They were 1) ScienceDirect (http://online.sagepub.com).

Thus, this study aims at providing an assessment regarding the progress of AR and VR researches published in hospitality and tourism journals. In particular, the study aime at:

  • Determining the current fields, topics and research methods of AR and VR articles published in 32 hospitality and tourism research journals between 2000-2018,

  • Comparing the subjects and research methods of 32 journals and discussing the changes in topic areas throughout the years,

  • To offer suggestions for further research on AR and VR for hospitality and tourism journals.

Key Terms in this Chapter

Semi-Immersive VR Simulations: Provide a more immersive experience, although the user is partly immersed in the virtual setting. Semi-immersive simulations are similar to the technologies found in flight simulation in many aspects.

Fully-Immersive VR Simulations: Provide the most immersive implementation of virtual reality technology. Hardware such as head-mounted displays and motion detecting devices are used to appeal to all of the senses of a user in a fully-immersive simulation.

Markerless AR: This type of AR doesn't need a marker and it usually requires a location or position. The AR content generally works from the GPS system or compass of smart devices. This technology is more device dependent in terms of capacity.

Marker Based AR: It can be processed by using the camera on the smart device to scan a visual marker such as a QR code attached to an advert.

Augmented Reality: The process of taking and integration digital info either with a live streaming video or with the user’s actual, real time atmosphere is called augmented reality (AR).

Virtual Reality: Represents three-dimensional (3D), interactive, computer-generated environments are represented by virtual reality application. These environments will either be models of real or imagined worlds, and that they aim at representing data through a synthetic experience.

Non-Immersive VR Simulations: The least immersive applications of virtual reality technology. In a non-immersive simulation, only a limited number of user’s senses are stimulated, allowing peripheral awareness of the reality outside the virtual reality simulation.

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