Prostate Cancer and Environmental Exposure: A Focus on Heavy Metals and Pesticides

Prostate Cancer and Environmental Exposure: A Focus on Heavy Metals and Pesticides

Omar El Hiba (Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco & Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Mehdi Ait Laaradia (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Fatima-Zahra Azzaoui (Ibn Tofail University, Morocco), Malika Ait Sidi Brahim (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Abdelali Bitar (Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco), Hicham Chatoui (Private University of Marrakech, Morocco & Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Hajar Kiai (Cadi Ayyad University, Morocco), Hanane Rais (Mohammed VI University Hospital, Morocco), Souad Sellami (Mohammed VI University Hospital, Morocco) and Ouassil El Kherchi (Hassan 1st University, Morocco)
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7775-1.ch008

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the major cause of disease and mortality among men. Every year, around 1.6 million new cases are diagnosed with 366,000 death cases. Different etiologies have been associated to PC incidence including the genetic predisposition as well as the environmental influences. Recently, more interest has been given to the role of food and water contaminations with heavy metals and pesticides as direct carcinogenetic agents, particularly involved in the pathogenesis of PC. The chapter will address the relationship between heavy metals and pesticides exposures, and the development of PC with the support of epidemiological and experimental evidences.
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Prostate Cancer: Epidemiology And Risk Factors

Adenocarcinoma of prostate or prostate cancer (PC) is a masculine pathology specific of elderly people, with about 9.7% of total male cancers and approximately (Ferlay, et al. 2015).

The incidence of PC is still variable. In fact, in developed countries it reaches 15.3%, while in the underdeveloped world it accounts only for 4.3% only (table 1) (Parkin, Bray, & Devesa, 2001). In US, PC is considered as the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and the second most common cause of death after lung cancer (Parkin, Bray, & Devesa, 2001).

PC is a particular pathology with different etiologies and risk factors, including age, ethnicity, family history, diet, obesity, sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases, occupation and smoking. Indeed, PC is affecting elderly men especially with 6 /10 cases diagnosed at the age of 65 years or later. Generally, the average age at the time of PC diagnosis is 66 years (Desantis, Siegel, & Jemal, 2014). While according to the race and ethnicity, studies showed that African-Americans population presents the highest rate of PC incidence in the world (Table 1). (see Bashir, 2015).

Table 1.
Prostate cancer incidence and U. S. mortality age adjusted rates by race (2007-2011) according to the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results program (SEER) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). (modified Bashir, 2015)
EthnicityIncidence Rates per 100,000 PersonU. S Mortality Rates per 100,000 Persons
All Races147.822.3
White139.920.6
White Hispanic120.319.1
White Non-Hispanic143.320.7
Hispanic121.818.5
Black223.948.9
Asian/ Pacific Islander79.310
American Indian71.516.8

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