Prototype Implementation and Automatic Determination of Pre-Transfusion Tests Based on Image Processing

Prototype Implementation and Automatic Determination of Pre-Transfusion Tests Based on Image Processing

Ana Silva Ferraz (University of Minho, Portugal), Vitor Hugo Carvalho (University of Minho, Portugal & Polytechnic Institute of Cávado and Ave, Portugal) and José Machado (University of Minho, Portugal)
Copyright: © 2016 |Pages: 15
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-9978-6.ch027
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Introduction

Before conducting a blood transfusion is necessary to perform a set of procedures to achieve the compatibility between the blood of the individual, who need to receive blood transfusion, and to select the blood for transfusion (Rod, Tate, & Trent, 2005)(Hoffbrand, Pettit, & Moss, 2004)(Caquet, 2004). The procedures to carry out include (Mitchell, Brain, & I. Bates, 2001)(Roback, Grossman, Harris, & Hillyer, 2011)(Hammering, 2012)(Hillyer, Silberstein, Ness, Anderson, & D., 2007):

  • 1.

    Determining the A, B, AB, O (ABO) and Rhesus (Rh) factor of the patient;

  • 2.

    Perform reverse grouping: ABO reverse grouping of the patient;

  • 3.

    Perform Rh (C, c, E and e) and Kell (K) phenotype for detecting the presence of antigens in the patient's blood. Search of other antigens may also be performed, but in few situations;

  • 4.

    Perform search for antibodies to detect the presence of significant antibodies. If the search for antibodies is positive, one should perform the identification of antibodies to allow selecting compatible blood;

  • 5.

    Compare the results with the previous data, if available;

  • 6.

    Select the red blood cells of the donor and perform the crossmatch.

All these procedures should be performed before administering a blood transfusion in order to ensure maximum compatibility between the donor and the receiver. For performing these procedures some techniques can be used, especially the plate test (Cressiers/Morat, 2008a), the tube test (Cressiers/Morat, 2008a), the microplate test (Hoffbrand et al., 2004) or the gel centrifugation test (Cressiers/Morat, 2008b), Table 1.

Table 1.
Comparison of different tests procedure
TestTest PrincipleTechnologyTime (Minutes)Cost per Test*Features
PlateAgglutinationManual≈ 2-5++Less sensitive, fast
TubeAgglutinationManual≈ 7-10++Sensitive, centrifugation necessary, fast, difficult to automate
MicroplateAgglutinationSemiautomatic, automatic≈ 30+++Sensitive, centrifugation is not always required, fast
Gel-centrifugationAgglutinationSemiautomatic, automatic≈ 20+++Sensitive, centrifugation necessary, slow

Cressiers/Morat, 2008a,b; Hoffbrand et al., 2004.

*From less expensive, +, to most expensive, +++

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