Quantum Blockchain for Smart Society: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

Quantum Blockchain for Smart Society: Applications, Challenges, and Opportunities

Manish Dadhich, Harish Tiwari
Copyright: © 2022 |Pages: 21
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-5072-7.ch009
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Smart cities are a futuristic urban development concept that uses ICT to enable citizens, governments, and organizations to collect and share real-time data. Q-BoC technology can provide a new level of convenience and security for communication and transactions among all of a smart city's many stakeholders. Information technology, including quantum blockchain, has been integrated to govern physical, social, and business infrastructures in today's rapidly developing smart cities. Innovative technologies and concepts such as the IoT, 5G, artificial intelligence, and quantum blockchain have become necessary for an intelligent and advanced society. In recent years, both academics and industry have demonstrated a strong interest in the revolution of smart cities. Smart cities can deliver a variety of smart functions, such as intelligent transportation, Industry 5.0, governance, Healthcare 5.0, and smart banking, to improve people's quality of life. The chapter explores the application, challenges, and opportunities for making a smart society.
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1. Introduction

Blockchain is a novel computer expertise application method that includes distributed data storage, point-to-point transmission, consensus mechanics, and an encryption technique (Aggarwal et al., 2019). In Blockchain, every node has its own allocated ledger for keeping transaction history. All the nodes are joints that validate all the blockchain rules. These nodes organize transactions into blocks and determine which genuine transactions should be included in the Blockchain. Communication and trust between nodes in a blockchain network are riled on digital signature technology, which primarily enables information identification, authenticity, and integrity verification (Alam, 2021). According to (Bhavin et al., 2021), Blockchain is a modern technology system in which the sequence of cryptographic blocks is linked together to form a decentralized peer-to-peer (P2P) net. Blockchain can accomplish validation, authorization, answerability, safety, integrity, privacy, and non-repudiation for real-time applications that a centralized system may not provide effectively in a smart community position. Similarly, (Kappert et al., 2021) discussed several blockchain-based consensus techniques and their efficiency and viability in various submissions. (Sun et al., 2016) investigated edge-centric IoT and cloud-centrical IoT structures, highlighting several safety measures for such decentralized methods. They also investigated the security issues that come with using Blockchain.

(Khan et al., 2021) investigated the numerous security and privacy challenges that arise in an IoT setting. (Shalendra Singh Rao, n.d.; Solaiman et al., 2021) investigated numerous safety threats to blockchain and damage consequences and proposed several strategies for improving security in an allocated system. (Ahl et al., 2020) examined the function of distributed ledger in the regional energy marketplace and smart grids' transactive energy controlling structure. Augmented reality, AI-ML-IoT system, robotics, and fog computing are increasingly driving factors behind global new-age city programs. Similarly, Fog computing has significant transportation applications, including, smart traffic management control and vechicle management systems also monitoring independent automobiles and self-spacing (Gill et al., 2019). Additionally, it is a more viable solution because of its low energy consumption and small footprint. Governments can employ these apps to improve citizen security and environmental stewardship. Moreover, it may be employed as in alternative services such as fire and natural disasters by providing early warning of critical circumstances to make sound decisions. Because of the ubiquity of Blockchain, several published literature studies, such as those shown in Table 1 (P. Sharma et al., 2022). For Examples, Smart cities (Costa & Peixoto, 2020), IoT (Sun et al., 2016), cloud (Selvaraj & Sundaravaradhan, 2020), healthcare systems (Ben et al., 2021), data centre networking (Forson & Vuopala, 2019), finance (M. Dadhich, M. S. Pahwa, 2021), digital currency (C. Li et al., 2019), smart grid (Sengupta et al., 2020), infrastructure (Haji, 2021), smart agriculture (Gill et al., 2019), automated vehicle (Srinivas Aditya et al., 2021), biometrics (Ioannou et al., 2020), Arial communications (R. L. Kumar et al., 2021).

Key Terms in this Chapter

Quantum Blockchain: Blockchain systems running in quantum computers.

Permissionless Blockchain: Also known as trustless or public blockchains, are open networks available to everyone to participate in the consensus process that blockchains use to validate transactions and data. They are fully decentralized across unknown parties.

Tokenization: Is the process of exchanging sensitive data for nonsensitive data called “tokens” that can be used in a database or internal system without bringing it into scope.

Cryptography: Is the technique of securing information and communications through use of codes so that only those persons for whom the information is intended can understand it and process it, thus preventing unauthorized access to information.

Cryptocurrency: Is a digital currency designed to work as a medium of exchange through a computer network that is not reliant on any central authority, such as a government or bank, to uphold or maintain it.

Identity Management: Is the organizational process for ensuring individuals have the appropriate access to technology resources. This includes the identification, authentication and authorization of a person, or persons, to have access to applications, systems, or networks.

Transparency: Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed. Transparency implies openness, communication, and accountability.

Asynchronous Blockchain: It is the blockchain network that can be designed whether to prioritize consistency or availability. If the network wants to prioritize availability, all transactions are added without any downtime. If the network wants to prioritize consistency, some transactions might not be processed or halted until all the previous transactions are confirmed.

Quantum Key Distribution: Is a secure communication method which implements a cryptographic protocol involving components of quantum mechanics. It enables two parties to produce a shared random secret key known only to them, which can then be used to encrypt and decrypt messages.

Quantum-Resistant Blockchain: Blockchain systems with post-quantum cryptography, i.e., post-quantum public-private key, hashing, and related protocols.

Lattice Cryptosystem: Is a generic term for construction of cryptographic primitives or scheme consisting of a set of algorithms that involve lattices and is used to convert plaintext to ciphertext to encode or decode messages securely.

Supply Chain: Is a network of individuals and companies who are involved in creating a product and delivering it to the consumer.

Permissioned Blockchain: Is a distributed ledger that is not publicly accessible. It can only be accessed by users with permissions. The users can only perform specific actions granted to them by the ledger administrators and are required to identify themselves through certificates or other digital means.

Blockchain: Traditional blockchain which uses pre-quantum cryptography and not secure from quantum attacks.

Signature Scheme: Is a technique to assure an entity's acknowledgment of having seen a certain digital message.

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