R2D2/C3PO Video Conferencing Instructional Strategies and Learning Activities: Expert Validated Research Instructional Design Model

R2D2/C3PO Video Conferencing Instructional Strategies and Learning Activities: Expert Validated Research Instructional Design Model

Ann Armstrong, Albert J. Gale
Copyright: © 2025 |Pages: 19
DOI: 10.4018/978-1-6684-7366-5.ch002
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Abstract

The rapid emergence of COVID-19 in the Spring of 2020 forced a majority of academic institutions, teachers, administrators, and students to precipitously move to online learning. In that sudden move, cloud-based video conferencing technology, allowing teachers and students to interact live with one another, became the technology of choice for many. The key factor that precipitated the move to video conferencing technology in schools was the ability to humanize online learning and provide a live visual link between teacher and students. This chapter describes each element of R2D2/C3PO, a research-based, validated, instructional design model, in-depth, providing generic examples of instructional strategies and learning activities for each element. The overarching objective of this article is to list and describe each model component, which are read, reflect, display, do, coaching, conviviality, critical incident questionnaire, planning, and organization, and then to provide detailed descriptions of constructivist instructional strategies and learning activities that can be used.
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Introduction

The rapid emergence of COVID-19 in the spring of 2020 forced a majority of academic institutions, teachers, administrators, and students to precipitously move to online learning. In that sudden move, cloud-based video conferencing technology, allowing teachers and students to interact live with one another, became the technology of choice for many. The key factor that precipitated the move to video conferencing technology in schools was the ability to humanize online learning and provide a live visual link between teacher and students. One technology that took hold quickly was Zoom.

A system such as Zoom, although not a breakthrough improvement in web-based video conferencing for current users and not as good as its leading competitor’s products at the time, was able to disrupt the video conferencing market. According to Christensen and Horn (2011), this type of disruption can be caused by offering a product that original consumers could not use at a time when former “non-consumers” suddenly had a strong need for and demand for the product. With the onset of COVID-19, schools, and other academic institutions, which formerly were non-consumers of video-based conferencing, immediately needed to be able to connect teachers, students, and parents quickly and easily. Zoom was more affordable than the market leaders and easier to use. In fact, Zoom had accessible options that were free. In addition, as Christensen and Horn would have predicted, over time, Zoom became a stronger product, which manages tasks that are more complicated.

The problem is that most educators have little experience with online education, and specifically with video web-based conferencing. As a result, researchers were calling for tools and training on web-based video conferencing systems that would help educators and instructional designers increase student engagement, provide a culture of collaboration, and lead to student success. Armstrong (2014, 2016), and Armstrong and Gale (2018) created, enhanced, and validated a research-based instructional design model, R2D2/C3PO, to provide a framework for creating instructional strategies and learning activities teachers could use during a synchronous, web-based video conferencing session to foster student engagement and learning. The first four components of the R2D2/C3PO model are based on Bonk and Zhang’s (2006, 2008) original work on the R2D2 model, read, reflect, display, and do. Bonk and Zhang used their model to focus on empowering teachers to deliver asynchronous online learning. At the time of their work, synchronous learning was in its infancy and starting to uptick. To address the lack of research and what is not known about how to develop effective instructional strategies and learning activities for synchronous video-based web-conferencing systems, Bonk and Zhang’s model was enhanced multiple times by Armstrong (2014, 2016), and Armstrong and Gales (2018), to include five additional components and explanations of how to incorporate instructional strategies and learning activities into each component when using synchronous video web-based conferencing (Armstrong, 2014, 2016; Armstrong & Gales; 2018; Bonk & Zhang, 2006, 2008). Armstrong and Gale (2018) validated the new R2D2/3PO model using an experienced group of instructional designers, who participated in a validation study through interviews, a questionnaire, and a focus group using the Nominal Group Technique (NCT).

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