Realizing the Newly Planned Organization

Realizing the Newly Planned Organization

DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5390-8.ch006

Abstract

Smith and Pourdehnad assert that a key question must be decided by an organization planning to implement the Fourth Industrial Revolution. These authors believe that this question is far more compelling than usual because of the highly technological nature of the systems involved in the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the ensuing pressures to manage them. The authors support the view that “the manager does things right” (efficiency) and “the leader does the right thing” (effectiveness). Smith and Cockburn provide evidence to support this point of view. Smith and Pourdehnad claim that when implementing the Fourth Industrial Revolution, individuals who ostensibly have a leadership role must be prepared to undertake management activities that position them to maximize both their effectiveness and efficiency. The authors go on to detail a four step “manager/leader” role process that will ensure successful implementation of the plans developed according to the processes set out in previous chapters. This process is completely consistent with the learning and adaption (L&A) system described in Chapter 3.
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Introduction

One of the questions that must be addressed in relation to implementation of the Fourth Industrial Revolution is whether leadership differs from management. This question is far more compelling than usual because of the highly technological nature of the systems involved in the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and the ensuing pressures to manage them. Bennis (2009) stated the commonly held view that “The manager does things right” (efficiency) and “the leader does the right thing” (effectiveness). Spicker (2012) proposed that management-leadership dichotomies are in fact part of a management-leadership continuum, and Smith and Cockburn (2013) support this point of view, claiming that their research demonstrates that “Management skills and leadership skills form a continuum and both ideally exist in the same person but are used to achieve different although interdependent ends” (pp. 8-9).

Figure 1.

Fulfilling your organizational role

When implementing the Fourth Industrial Revolution, individuals who ostensibly have a leadership role, must be prepared to undertake management activities that position themselves in the top right-hand quadrant of the effectiveness-efficiency matrix shown in Figure 1. This maximizes both their effectiveness and efficiency.

In this quadrant both management and leadership skills are highly developed, and will be available for application in the process, which is further described in this chapter. This reflects the view that in dealing with the Fourth Industrial Revolution, most people will have roles that will at times reflect objectives based on “management” priorities and at other times on “leadership” priorities. Furthermore, as Smith and Cockburn (2013) argue, leadership will be distributed across such a broad range of activities that anyone can exercise leadership whatever their formal role. Transformational and Transactional styles of leadership can be fashioned to suit each situation; however according to Smith and Cockburn (2013) Transformational leadership is said to be the most effective way to lead a diverse workforce in projects such as those involved in the Fourth Industrial Revolution.

Figure 2.

Generic leader/manager role

A four-step “manager/leader” role process (consistent with the Learning and Adaption process described in Chapter 4) is next described in this chapter that will ensure successful implementation of the plans developed according to the process set out in Chapter 3.

The First Step is to clearly and thoroughly understand your manager/leader role (see Figure 2). That is: “what are you expected to achieve?” In effect this is your (sporting) scoreboard, and win, lose or draw, your performance will be judged against it. It is essential that you are involved in developing this role so that you are thoroughly familiar with your responsibilities. Your current role statement must be approved at appropriate senior levels, and you must constantly review, and revise it as necessary, to better meet your organization’s priorities.

The Second Step involves how the manger/leader may successfully perform her/his role, and is based on the performance system model shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3.

Dynamic performance system

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